Welcome to Mint! I don't know how much this might help because as I am learning as a noOb myself and there tends to be a bazillion different ways to do the same thing on Linux...What I do is launch Krusader from <Tasty Menu><Utilities><Krusader>. On the top level menu under 'Tools' you will have both a Locate (Indexed Linux search) and Search (Same as Windows Search command but easier to use) function.
For me one of the hardest things about learning Linux is learning where everything is. As an aside, because it WILL come into play a lot, you can do a heck of a lot of things from Krusader, including setting folder and file permissions, as well as the ability to do these anything as the root user if needed. I never want to be a command line expert myself, and this tool is invaluable.