This is all a bit of smoke and mirrors isn't it. It is just a snapshot of the best server now, and given that your post shows a time of about 9am UK time and you live in NY I would think that at 4am local time you would get a pretty good response from just about anywhere in the US or Canada!
If you were really serious about it I guess you would have to do this test before every update which would be a bit of a chore.
As for where the default server is I am not sure, it you opened /etc/apt/sources.list and copied the address you are using then put it into nslookup to change it to an ip address and finally put it into liveipmap.com you would find out. Here is my example:
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Fujitsu Lifebook AH532. Intel i5 processor, 6Gb ram, Intel HD3000 graphics, Intel Audio/wifi. Realtek RTL8111/8168B Ethernet.Lubuntu 13.10,Ubuntu12.10 (Unity), Mint16 (Cinnamon), Manjaro (Xfce).