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Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Sun Jan 09, 2011 7:29 am

P r e f a c e

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document is provided as is - without warranty. Use it at your own risk.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

All programs and commands tested -
---------------------------------
Exceptions mentioned!
---------------------------------

Tests realized: Julia KDE (64 bit), Katya Gnome (64 + 32 bit), LMDE (64 + 32 bit) on 3 notebooks

This HowTo has no logical sequence, because
> Chapters result from problems in Mint Forum > I only could attach 3 screenshots each post


Downloads http://www.linuxmint.com/oldreleases.php See which version is supported > Overview Linux Mint Releases:

Linux Mint: Desktop Gnome, KDE, Xfce, LXDE and Fluxbox (LM9). Official User Guide: http://www.linuxmint.com/documentation.php
Linux Mint Debian (LMDE): Desktop Gnome, Xfce, (KDE?) > rolling release

Important!
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ Before you install Mint: I highly recommend to download and burn live CD PartedMagic or SystemRescue.
+ Both are containing GParted, the best Partition Editor I know (and other useful tools).
+ If you have Windows (pre-)installed: additional SuperGrubDisk!
+ Homepages: => Please see chapter 0.2

+ After having installed Linux, your computer may not boot;
+ with SGD you are able to start Windows (and maybe Linux) ; with PM or SR you can manipulate system files.

+ No CD / DVD drive: create a live USB SystemRescue => Please see chapter 21 [ methods from Windows and Linux ]
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

~~~~~~~~~~
Chapters
~~~~~~~~~~

00 Windows
> 0.1 Checking download and burning image
> 0.2 Valuable live mediums
> 0.3 Preparing Windows for dual boot
01 Linux
02 Terminal / Editors
> 2.1 Short introduction in Terminal
> 2.2 Editors
03 Opening a Thread
04 Hardware
05 Sound
06 Installation
> 6.1 Grub
> 6.2 Partitioning
07 Request
08 HOWTOS
09 Network
10 UNetbootin
11 Windows chainload
12 Integrity of a live CD /DVD
13 Backup boot loader
14 Explanation of a specific partitioning
15 Start Mint from command line
16 swap
> 16.1 Partition
> 16.2 File
> 16.3 Suspend to disk
17 PartedMagic
18 GParted
19 Create live USB with "dd"
20 Move home
> 20.1 Preliminary work
> 20.2
21 SystemRescue USB
> 21.1 USB installation method from Windows
> 21.2 USB installation method from Linux
> 21.3 System Rescue
22 Bluetooth

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
00 Windows
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

0.1 Checking download and burning image

Check md5sum after download: WinMD5Free.exe > http://www.winmd5.com/

No burning program -> SetupImgBurn_2.5.5.0.exe > http://www.imgburn.com/
Burn with low speed!

0.2 Valuable live mediums

If installation is failing: Prevention is better than cure!

To start Windows or Linux, repair boot loader GRUB v.1.9:
SuperGrubDisk http://www.supergrubdisk.org/ : Rescatux - Super Grub2 Disk
SystemRescueCd: http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page

PM is more than a Linux operating system!
PartedMagic http://partedmagic.com/doku.php?id=downloads


0.3 Preparing Windows for dual boot

Backup your data to an external backup medium before trying a dual-boot install.
Windows should be installed first, because it´s a lot easier than installing Windows after Linux.

Clean up unnecessary files and defragment the drive before resizing:

Free downloads:

Revouninstaller - http://www.revouninstaller.com/revo_uninstaller_free_download.html
revosetup.exe ~ 2.6 MB
Features:
+ Creating SystemRestorePoint
+ Scanning for leftovers after the standard uninstall

CCleaner - http://www.piriform.com/ccleaner
ccsetupVersion.exe ~ 3 MB
Features:
+ Cleaner (System, Applications)
+ Registry Cleaner
+ Remove SRP

AuslogicsDiskDefrag - http://www.auslogics.com/en/software/disk-defrag/
disk-defrag-setup.exe ~ 4.5 MB

Shrinking Windows

Windows partition needs to be shrunk, creating free space for the Linux partition(s).
Don't shrink Windows on a running system, use a live medium as PartedMagic/ GParted, GParted or KDE Partition Manager

GParted: http://gparted.sourceforge.net/

KDE Partition Manager tested as a tool of a live Linux and as a live CD KDE Partition Manager!
KDE Partition Manager: http://kde-apps.org/content/show.php?content=89595


After shrinking a Windows partition:
reboot into Windows prior to further partitioning or even installing Mint - to enable Windows to update its boot files.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
01 Linux
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Check download > Terminal/ Konsole: command md5sum *.iso

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ pwd
/home/seeley
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ cd Downloads
seeley@seeley-laptop ~/Downloads $ ls -l
total 3614264
-rw-r--r-- 1 seeley seeley  725968896 Jul 24 11:33 linuxmint-11-lxde-32bit-rc2.iso
-rw-r--r-- 1 seeley seeley         54 Jul 24 11:23 md5sumMint11LXDErc2iso
seeley@seeley-laptop ~/Downloads $ md5sum linuxmint-11-lxde-32bit-rc2.iso
f1c310e709c3236a84a7afa4a44f696d  linuxmint-11-lxde-32bit-rc2.iso
seeley@seeley-laptop ~/Downloads $ cat md5sumMint11LXDErc2iso
f1c310e709c3236a84a7afa4a44f696d md5 mintLXDE11rc2iso


To burn an image: Gnome: Brasero, KDE and Gnome: K3b

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
02 Terminal / Editors
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

2.1 Short introduction in Terminal

Many tasks in Linux can be done from both graphical interfaces and from commands.
To solve a problem the help you get often requires the output of Terminal / Konsole.
You can find it: Menu/ Accessories/ or Menu/ System Tools- it depends on the distribution and the Desktop.
Some commands require administrator rights (root) - the command depends on the distribution and the Desktop:

On live medium:
Code: Select all
sudo su
<ENTER>

Otherwise:
Code: Select all
su -
password
Code: Select all
command
or
Code: Select all
sudo command
password

BTW: LMDE has a Root Terminal.

If you want to post the output of a command:
Mark it, copy (and paste) it into your POST A REPLY choosing Code and pasting it between the two pairs of [] [] brackets - to better read it.

Important commands:
Code: Select all
ls
> list directory
A description :
Code: Select all
man ls
| back with q (quit)

Code: Select all
pwd
> print working directory, e.g.:
/home/seeley

Code: Select all
cat /etc/hostname
> concatenate files and print, e.g.:
seeley-Amilo

Code: Select all
df -h
> file system disk space

Code: Select all
mount

Code: Select all
free
> amount of free memory

Code: Select all
dmesg
> print bootup messages

2.2 Editors

Desktop.....Editor...........root command..........Main Menu >
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gnome.......Gedit............gksudo gedit.............Accessories
KDE...........Kate..............kdesudo kate *)........Applications > Utilities
LXDE.........Leafpad....
XFCE.........Mousepad....gksudo mousepad...
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*) Alt+F2: kdesu kate / kdesu kwrite
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Without graphical interface you have to use a Terminal editor

vim
http://www.linuxquestions.org/linux/ans ... i_Improved

nano

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
03 Opening a thread
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1. Posting distribution, kernel, desktop and data medium
Code: Select all
 lsb_release -rd

Ex 01.a:
Description: Linux Mint 10 Julia
Release: 10

Ex 01.b:
Description: Linux Mint Debian Edition
Release: 1


Code: Select all
 uname -a

Ex 02.a:
... 2.6.35-22-generic #33-Ubuntu SMP Sun Sep 19 20:32:27 UTC 2010 x86_64 GNU/Linux

-> 64 bit
Ex 02.b:
... 2.6.32-5-686 #1 SMP Thu Nov 25 18:43:34 UTC 2010 i686 GNU/Linux

-> 32 bit
Ex 02.c:
2.6.39-1.dmz.2-liquorix-amd64 #1 ZEN SMP PREEMPT Fri Jun 10 01:11:24 CDT 2011 x86_64 GNU/Linux

-> 64 bit

Desktop: Gnome, KDE, Xfce, LXDE, Fluxbox
Image on CD, DVD, USB

2. Number of hard disks
Code: Select all
inxi -F | grep Disks

Ex3:
Disks: HDD Total Size: 80.0GB (5.4% used) 1: /dev/sda FUJITSU_MHT2080A 80.0GB

installed operating systems
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------important---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 EXAMPLES WHAT YOU SHOULD POST
Example 4.1 (Minimum):
Mint 9/ KDE/ 32 bit/ installed from live-CD/ VISTA preinstalled/ 1 hard disk

Example 4.2:
Mint Julia/ Gnome 2.32.0/ kernel 2.6.35-22-generic #33-Ubuntu SMP Sep 19 2010 x86_64 GNU/Linux
installed from live USB <-UNetbootin/ multiboot W7 - Julia - Fedora/
Disks: HDD Total Size: 504.2GB (12.4% used) 1: /dev/sda TOSHIBA_MK5055GS 500.1GB

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------important---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Code: Select all
gnome-about

shows Gnome version.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
04 Hardware
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

List Hardware:
As root:
Code: Select all
lshw

or
Code: Select all
hwinfo

Maybe you get a message
Code: Select all
The program 'hwinfo' is currently not installed.  You can install it by typing:
sudo apt-get install hwinfo


Code: Select all
lsusb

lists e.g.:
USB mouse, USB printer,
USB flash drive [-> ICON on Gnome Desktop; unplug: right click and "Safely Remove Drive"!],
integrated webcam (!),
USB modem, e.g.:
Bus 002 Device 007: ID 12d1:1003 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. E220 HSDPA Modem / E270 HSDPA/HSUPA Modem

The first 4 hexadecimal characters (12d1) are showing the vendor and the second 4 hexadecimal characters (1003) the product.

Code: Select all
lspci

e.g.: Audio controller, Firewire, SD Host Controller, Network Controller,...

Links concerning Hardware problems:
Debian Wiki: http://wiki.debian.org/HowToIdentifyADevice/PCI

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
05 Sound
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Run in a Terminal and post the output:
a)
Code: Select all
cat /proc/asound/card0/codec#* | grep Codec

Ex5:
Codec: IDT 92HD71B7X

and
Code: Select all
aplay -L

b)
Sound preferences:
left part of the image: right click on speaker iCON.....................................|| right part of the image: run "pavucontrol" in a Terminal.....................

sound1.png
sound1.png (56.57 KiB) Viewed 14888 times

c)
Terminal:
Code: Select all
alsamixer

sound2.png
sound2.png (49.89 KiB) Viewed 14888 times

Hit F6 to choose your sound card and push buttons up!

d)
Terminal:
Code: Select all
gnome-alsamixer

sound3.png
sound3.png (46.6 KiB) Viewed 14888 times


e) Edit files *.conf
Sometimes you must add a row in the file /etc/modprobe.d/alsa-base.conf, e.g.
(HDA Intel card):
options snd-hda-intel model=auto
Save, reboot, run "alsamixer" to unmute and adjust channels.
If this step was unsuccessful, replace that line with
options snd-hda-intel model=laptop
or instead of "laptop": name of the computer, the model, the manufacturer.
Save, reboot, run "alsamixer" to unmute and adjust channels.

/blacklist*.conf

f) Installation of another kernel / waiting for a new kernel.

Links [solved]:
1. eepc1005hab
Mint 10 is nice but fails re microphone <workaround found>
2.
Help for Sound Problems Intel (ICH5/ICH5R) AC'97
3. Acer eeePC Realtek ALC629
Suddenly no sound from speakers, headphones work
4. LG P1 Express ALC880
No sound on my laptop LG P1

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
06 Installation
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

6.1 Grub


The GRand Unified Bootloader 2, GRUB 2, is following Grub legacy (Grub 1). I name the successor GRUB"2", because version 1.97 contains bugs (concerning VISTA and PCLinuxOS).
Instead of menu.lst GRUB"2" uses 2 files: grub.cfg (should not be edited) and grub (can be edited)
and a directory /etc/grub.d/
The files can be displayed by:
Code: Select all
cat /boot/grub/grub.cfg
and
Code: Select all
cat /etc/default/grub

To edit grub:
Code: Select all
gksudo gedit /etc/default/grub
afterwards run
Code: Select all
sudo update-grub
to write changes into grub.cfg

In Ubuntuusers.de/Wiki :
http://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/GRUB_Umgebung_analysieren#GRUB-Installation-in-MBR-und-Bootsektor-automatisch-aufspueren
I found the following command (De -> En):
Copy the command into a Terminal and post the output.
Code: Select all
sudo fdisk -l 2>/dev/null | egrep "Disk /|/dev/" | sed "s#^/dev/#Part /dev/#" | awk '{print $2}' | sed 's/://' | xargs -n1 -IX sudo sh -c "hexdump -v -s 0x80 -n  2 -e '2/1 \"%x\" \"\\n\"' X | xargs -n1 -IY sh -c \"case  \"Y\" in '48b4') echo X: GRUB 2 v1.96 ;; 'aa75' | '5272') echo X: GRUB Legacy ;; '7c3c') echo X: GRUB 2 v1.97 or higher ;; *) echo X: No GRUB Y ;; esac\""

- I name it "findGrub"- (De -> EN)
GRUB Byte-Kennungen
5272 GRUB (Legacy)
aa75 GRUB (Legacy)
48b4 GRUB 2 (Version 1.96)
7c3c GRUB 2 (Version 1.97 or 1.98)
020 GRUB 2 (Version 1.99)
488 Grub 2 core.img
Other Systems:
...


Unfortunately "findGrub" does not work correctly:

I recently installed Katya (Gnome 64 bit) onto the logical partition /dev/sda5 with boot loader Grub"2" into the MasterBootRecord of my hard disk (/dev/sda):
boot loader Grub 1.99rc1 in the MBR of /dev/sda
but "findGRUB" displayed
Code: Select all
/dev/sda: No GRUB 020


But Byte identifier 020 means: Grub 1.99

However the following command
Code: Select all
dpkg --list | grep grub

displays the correct version (Grub of the current Linux):
Code: Select all
ii  grub-common                           1.99~rc1-13ubuntu3-1mint1                  GRand Unified Bootloader, version 2 (common files)
ii  grub-gfxpayload-lists                 0.2                                        GRUB gfxpayload blacklist
ii  grub-pc                               1.99~rc1-13ubuntu3-1mint1                  GRand Unified Bootloader, version 2 (PC/BIOS version)
ii  grub2-theme-mint                      1.0.7                                 


Links concerning GRUB"2":

Ubuntu Documentation: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2
Hermans GNU GRUB 1.98: http://members.iinet.net/~herman546/p20.html


If "findGrub" displayed GRUB2 on your root partition -> repair
If "findGrub" displayed No GRUB on your root partition -> install

To repair Grub"2"

Boot from your Mint live medium
Supposing hard disk /dev/sda and Mint root partition sdaX is not labelled
IMPORTANT: replace X 4 times in 3 commands and sda, if your hd is not identified as sda !
Terminal:
Code: Select all
ls /media

No output is okay.
Supposing Mint is installed in /dev/sdaX and Grub2 into the MBR of /dev/sda:
Case sensitivity!

Terminal: As root (e.g. Gnome Desktop):
Code: Select all
sudo mkdir /media/SDAX

Code: Select all
sudo mount /dev/sdaX /media/SDAX

Code: Select all
ls /media

SDAX should be printed.
Terminal:
Code: Select all
sudo grub-setup -d /media/SDAX/boot/grub /dev/sda

IMPORTANT: replace X 4 times in 3 commands


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I did not try to repair or install GRUB"2" on a system with own boot partition!
I suppose you must mount both boot and root partitions and choose as sadX the boot partition.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To install Grub"2" TESTED in this forum: http://forums.linuxmint.com/viewtopic.php?f=46&t=65156&p=376469#p376469

Supposing hard disk sda and root partition sdaX
Code: Select all
sudo mount /dev/sdaX /mnt

A separate boot partition -sdaW- must be mounted, too:
Code: Select all
sudo mount /dev/sdaW /mnt/boot

A separate home partition -sdaY- must be mounted, too:
Code: Select all
sudo mount /dev/sdaY /mnt/home

Important step:

Code: Select all
sudo mount --bind /dev/ /mnt/dev


To install GRUB"2" into the MBR of hard disk sda:
Code: Select all
sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt /dev/sda



6.2 Partitioning

Run in a Terminal and post the output:
a)
Code: Select all
sudo fdisk -l
l = lowercase "L" like list
and
Code: Select all
sudo parted -l print

b) Partitioning:
Code: Select all
sudo gparted


Important hint concerning partitioning with GParted: You can test GP:
If you don't choose "Apply all operations" and choose "Clear all operations" the changes will not be written to disk.

Reference
http://gparted.sourceforge.net/documentation.php
I highly recommend to use a new version of GP.
PartedMagic has many useful tools as UNetbootin (once used you never will miss it!), TestDisk,...; GParted:
http://partedmagic.com/doku.php
Don't use version 6.4 (bugs)!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
07 Request
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Please add [solved] to the subject line, if your originally question is answered.
Fitzcarraldo/ Sabayon forum gives the best statement I know at http://forum.sabayon.org/viewtopic.php?f=86&t=17059

Why ... to add "[Solved]" to your post. Please read.
There are several reasons why are we asking you to do this small, simple thing:
1. If a thread has been marked "[Solved]" then forum visitors (especially the moderators and knowledgeable members who try to help others) know they don't need to revisit the thread. This saves valuable time, especially if there are several threads with requests for help.
2. When you use the forum's Search facility to look for a solution to a problem, if one or more of the list of posts has "[Solved]" in the Subject then you can open those posts first and probably find the solution to your problem faster. Otherwise you may spend a lot of time reading posts and threads which leave you none the wiser.
3. By doing this yourself, rather than expecting forum moderators to do it for you, you are being courteous as you give us more time to deal with other forum tasks or trying to help with other requests.
4. Other visitors with the same problem as you may not bother to browse a thread again if they think that the discussion is ongoing but no solution has been found. If they see the thread has been marked "[Solved]" the next time they visit the forum, they know immediately to visit/revisit that thread.
Your cooperation would be appreciated. Thanks.


And please point at this thread - reading unanswered questions - if you find this tutorial helpful and your problem is solved.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
08 HOWTOS
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ENGLISH

Howto install Mint Debian (LMDE):

HOWTO install 201101 onto hard disk
HOWTO install 201012 Gnome 64 on USB flash

Deutsch

Anleitung: wie schnelle Hilfe erhalten
Anleitung zur Installation von Julia / Dualboot Windows - Mint / manuelle Partitionierung
Anleitung zur Installation von 201101

Lauren's Deutsch/ English TUTORIALS

Windows vorhanden > Mint Installation vorbereiten / Windows pre-installed > prepare Mint installation
Julia KDE Installation - Partitionen manuell festlegen / Installing Julia KDE - Custom layout
EeePC-vx6 Dualboot Windows7 - Mint10 (incl. Skype)
Last edited by seeley on Sat Mar 15, 2014 6:16 am, edited 79 times in total.
seeley @ Linux multiboot
Maya MATE Cinnamon , Petra KDE
Quickly get help
Anleitung: wie schnelle Hilfe erhalten
User avatar
seeley
Level 6
Level 6
 
Posts: 1297
Joined: Sun Mar 07, 2010 7:20 am

Linux Mint is funded by ads and donations.
 

Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Thu Jan 20, 2011 7:06 am

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
09 Network
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

>

Right click on Panel / Icon NetWorkManager / Edit Connections

ShotNWM.png
ShotNWM.png (65.66 KiB) Viewed 14698 times


No WIRELESS:
Please first see if there are additional drivers avialable (not Windows drivers);
> Icon in Gnome Panel or
> System > Administration or
> System tools

A window "Additional Drivers" may open with a list ->
No proprietary drivers are in use ... LinuxMint cannot fix or improve these drivers.
- ... wireless driver
- ... grahics driver
- ... 3D support
....


Those drivers can be activated by a mouse click.

3G / UMTS USB modem

ShotBroadband.png
ShotBroadband.png (33.89 KiB) Viewed 14698 times


Right click NWM / Connection Information
ShotWLANKP.png
ShotWLANKP.png (31.12 KiB) Viewed 14698 times


Example with wireless active (here: eth2):
Code: Select all
~ $ inxi -N

Code: Select all
Network:   Card-1 Realtek RTL-8139/8139C/8139C+ driver 8139too
           Card-2 Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG [Calexico2] Network Connection driver ipw2200

Code: Select all
 ~ $sudo iwconfig

Code: Select all
lo        no wireless extensions.
...
eth2      IEEE 802.11g  ESSID:"MyWireless01" 
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.412 GHz  Access Point: 00:1F:8A:90:1F:C6   
          Bit Rate:54 Mb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   Sensitivity=8/0 
          Retry limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Encryption key:B743-...-6F9C   Security mode:open
          Power Management:off
          Link Quality=86/100  Signal level=-43 dBm  Noise level=-87 dBm
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:1  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:1

Code: Select all
 ~ $ sudo ifconfig

Code: Select all
eth1      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:02:0c:18:d0:d0 
          UP BROADCAST MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 B)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)
          Interrupt:9 Base address:0xc800

eth2      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:0e:35:7b:5c:f9 
          inet addr:192.168.1.53  Bcast:192.168.1.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fe80::20e:35ff:fe6a:5cf9/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:140 errors:1 dropped:1 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:132 errors:0 dropped:20 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:33948 (33.1 KiB)  TX bytes:13815 (13.4 KiB)
          Interrupt:11 Base address:0xc000 Memory:ffdfd000-ffdfdfff
...



PING (Wikipedia):
Ping (packet internet grouper) is a computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer.

Code: Select all
ping -c4 forums.linuxmint.com
PING forums.linuxmint.com (184.106.181.250) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from forums.linuxmint.com (184.106.181.250): icmp_req=1 ttl=51 time=151 ms

--- forums.linuxmint.com ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 1 received, 75% packet loss, time 3006ms
...


-c4 = count 4 means 4 packages were send

If you got an error message, maybe there is a problem with the nameservers - to find it out

nslookup > query Internet name servers

Code: Select all
nslookup forums.linuxmint.com

Code: Select all
...
Non-authoritative answer:
Name:   forums.linuxmint.com
Address: 184.106.181.250


Then "ping" with the displayed IP address 184.106.181.250 instead of the name forums.linuxmint.com

Code: Select all
ping -c4 184.106.181.250
PING 184.106.181.250 (184.106.181.250) 56(84) bytes of data.

If the first "ping" failed and the second one not, then the nameservers could be wrong or missing.

Code: Select all
cat /etc/resolv.conf


Links [solved]:

1. (Ethernet controller: Atheros Communications Inc. AR5001 Wireless Network Adapter)
LMDE 64 bits: no wireless on Fujitsu AMILO Li 2727

2.
No wireless connection in Mint10

Clue

HP's G60-530CA + wireless card Intel WiFi Link 1000 > All about wireless
See: http://distrowatch.com/weekly.php?issue=20110328#upcoming
Last edited by seeley on Sat Aug 13, 2011 6:31 am, edited 8 times in total.
seeley @ Linux multiboot
Maya MATE Cinnamon , Petra KDE
Quickly get help
Anleitung: wie schnelle Hilfe erhalten
User avatar
seeley
Level 6
Level 6
 
Posts: 1297
Joined: Sun Mar 07, 2010 7:20 am

Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Fri Jan 21, 2011 5:57 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
10 UNetbootin
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If you have problems burning an image on CD or DVD, you can make a live USB with PartedMagic/ UNetbootin; it's very easy to do and takes significant less time.

ShotUNa.png
ShotUNa.png (179.88 KiB) Viewed 14641 times


ShotUNbK.png
ShotUNbK.png (49.47 KiB) Viewed 14641 times


ShotUNc.png
ShotUNc.png (16.85 KiB) Viewed 14641 times
Last edited by seeley on Tue Mar 22, 2011 6:59 am, edited 2 times in total.
seeley @ Linux multiboot
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Sat Jan 22, 2011 3:14 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
11 Windows / chainload
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

After having installed a Dualboot Windows (first) - Mint (second) a GRUB"2" menu is displayed, but you can't start Windows.

When the menu appears, type
Code: Select all
c
(BTW: Notice the Grub version!)
You see:
Code: Select all
 grub>_

Type
Code: Select all
chainloader (hd0, <tab>
(<tab> means: hit the tab key.)
You see - I hope - a list of partitions; search the one with Windows on it, it could be Partition hd0,msdos1
you should see
Code: Select all
chainloader (hd0,msdos

If it is msdos1, complete the command: (with the number you found - here as example, I use "1")
Code: Select all
chainloader (hd0,msdos1)+1
(the second "1" must be "1" in any case!)
You see again:
Code: Select all
grub> _


Type
Code: Select all
boot

and hope, that your Windows will start!
Last edited by seeley on Tue Mar 22, 2011 7:00 am, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Sun Jan 23, 2011 1:30 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
12 Integrity of a live CD / DVD
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

On a Sabayon Forum I've found this useful hint to check a burned CD / DVD:
http://wiki.sabayon.org/index.php?title=HOWTO:_Checking_the_integrity_of_a_LiveCD_or_LiveDVD

Supposing you are able to boot from hd to an installed Linux!

I tested it with my LMDE 32 bit live DVD (201101):

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ isoinfo -d -i /dev/cdrom

->
Code: Select all
CD-ROM is in ISO 9660 format
System id: LINUX
Volume id: Linux Mint Debian 32-bit
Volume set id:
Publisher id:
Data preparer id:
Application id: GENISOIMAGE ISO 9660/HFS FILESYSTEM CREATOR (C) 1993 E.YOUNGDALE (C) 1997-2006 J.PEARSON/J.SCHILLING (C) 2006-2007 CDRKIT TEAM
Copyright File id:
Abstract File id:
Bibliographic File id:
Volume set size is: 1
Volume set sequence number is: 1
Logical block size is: 2048
Volume size is: 504856
El Torito VD version 1 found, boot catalog is in sector 36
Joliet with UCS level 3 found
Rock Ridge signatures version 1 found
Eltorito validation header:
    Hid 1
    Arch 0 (x86)
    ID ''
    Key 55 AA
    Eltorito defaultboot header:
        Bootid 88 (bootable)
        Boot media 0 (No Emulation Boot)
        Load segment 0
        Sys type 0
        Nsect 4
        Bootoff 25 37


The two relevant lines are:
Logical block size is: 2048
Volume size is: 504856


Insert these two numbers: bs=2048 and count=504856
->
Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ dd if=/dev/cdrom bs=2048 count=504856 conv=notrunc,noerror | md5sum


Code: Select all
504856+0 records in
504856+0 records out
1033945088 bytes (1.0 GB) copied, 186.488 s, 5.5 MB/s
daeabb182b016cd62bfced5483441b5a  -


and compare the output with the md5sum of Linux Mint Debian 32-bit (201101) DVD 1 GB from
http://www.linuxmint.com/edition.php?id=66
MATCH!
Thus the burning was okay. If it does not match the md5sum published on the mirror then you need to burn another CD / DVD.
Last edited by seeley on Tue Mar 22, 2011 7:02 am, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Mon Jan 24, 2011 11:47 am

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
13 Backup boot loader
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1. Saving on working directory (running Mint)

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ pwd
< print working directory >
Code: Select all
/home/seeley


To copy the 446 Bytes to the file BackupBootloader in the working directory:
Code: Select all
sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=BackupBootloader bs=446 count=1

password
Code: Select all
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
446 bytes (446 B) copied, 0.0001598 s, 2.8 MB/s

To see the result:
Code: Select all
ls -l

Code: Select all
total 6
-rw-r--r-- 1 root   root    446 2011-01-24 16:40 BackupBootloader
...


2. Saving on USB flash

Supposing an USB flash drive is (auto) mounted - here: SANDISK2 (labelled with GParted)

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ cd /media
seeley@seeley-laptop /media $ ls -l
drwx------  9 seeley seeley 32768 Jan  1  1970 SANDISK2
seeley@seeley-laptop /media $ cd SANDISK2


Using the same "dd" command:

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop /media/SANDISK2 $ sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=BackupBootloader bs=446 count=1
[sudo] password for seeley:
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
446 bytes (446 B) copied, 0.00477407 s, 93.4 kB/s
seeley@seeley-laptop /media/SANDISK2 $ ls -l
total 1722432
-rw-r--r-- 1 seeley seeley        446 Aug 14 12:28 BackupBootloader



--------------------------------------------------------------
I did not test copying back the backup file!
--------------------------------------------------------------
Last edited by seeley on Sun Aug 14, 2011 6:40 am, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Tue Jan 25, 2011 7:43 am

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
14 Explanation of a specific partitioning
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Illustration of a Disk Partitioning using an example of a multiboot system

No guideline how to partition - only exemplification of terms!

On my old laptop - Windows XP preinstalled - I first was shrinking the system partition - with GParted live.
Over the years I made more than 20 changes; that's why the partitions are not in disk order - as you see by running
Code: Select all
sudo fdisk -l
/ shows cylinders / or
Code: Select all
sudo fdisk -lu
/ shows sectors:
Code: Select all
Disk /dev/sda: 80.0 GB, 80026361856 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9729 cylinders, total 156301488 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0xb635b635
   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1              63    77995574    38997756    7  HPFS/NTFS
/dev/sda2        77995575    89498114     5751270   83  Linux
/dev/sda3        96904141   156295167    29695513+   5  Extended
/dev/sda4        89498115    96904079     3702982+   b  W95 FAT32
/dev/sda5        96904143    99088919     1092388+  82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6       130415733   140825789     5205028+  83  Linux
/dev/sda7       140825853   143894204     1534176   83  Linux
/dev/sda8   *    99088983   107474849     4192933+  83  Linux
/dev/sda9       107474913   111667814     2096451   83  Linux
/dev/sda10      111667878   127315124     7823623+  83  Linux
/dev/sda11      127315188   130415669     1550241   83  Linux
/dev/sda12      143896576   156295167     6199296   83  Linux
Partition table entries are not in disk order


You see 4 primary partitions, /dev/sda1,..,4; one of them, /dev/sda3, is an extended partition as container for 8 logical partitions /dev/sda5,......,12.
The unallocated space can be ignored.

Gnome partition editor:

ScreenGP_KP.png
Screenshot, finished with KolourPaint - /works with KDE and Gnome
ScreenGP_KP.png (75.1 KiB) Viewed 14478 times


The boot flag of Fedora is of no relevance - I could remove it without consequence.
But maybe - depending on BIOS - it's needed on another computer or another distribution.

Code: Select all
sudo parted -l print

shows the partitions in the right order (see GP screenshot, too)

Code: Select all
Model: ATA FUJITSU MHT2080A (scsi)
Disk /dev/sda: 80.0GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos

Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system     Flags
 1      32.3kB  39.9GB  39.9GB  primary   ntfs
 2      39.9GB  45.8GB  5889MB  primary   ext4
 4      45.8GB  49.6GB  3792MB  primary   fat32
 3      49.6GB  80.0GB  30.4GB  extended
 5      49.6GB  50.7GB  1119MB  logical   linux-swap(v1)
 8      50.7GB  55.0GB  4294MB  logical   ext4            boot
 9      55.0GB  57.2GB  2147MB  logical   ext4
10      57.2GB  65.2GB  8011MB  logical   ext4
11      65.2GB  66.8GB  1587MB  logical   ext4
 6      66.8GB  72.1GB  5330MB  logical   ext4
 7      72.1GB  73.7GB  1571MB  logical   ext4
12      73.7GB  80.0GB  6348MB  logical   ext4


There are 5 operating systems ( Windows XP and 4 x Linux), a multiboot with XP - Test Distri - Fedora - Julia - LMDE;
Test Distri was Isadora (all Desktops), now Julia Gnome, later on will be Julia KDE.
Each Linux has an own "/home" and they all are labeled - to better recognize them.
The Mount Point "/" shows that I was running Mint on sda2 with it's /home (sda10) and Data exchange partition XP - Mint (sda4), mounted as /media/DATA - I was choosing "/media" to see an ICON on Desktop Gnome.

Manual GParted:
http://manual.aptosid.com/en/part-gparted-en.htm
Last edited by seeley on Wed Aug 17, 2011 6:32 am, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Tue Feb 01, 2011 3:34 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
15 Start Mint from command line
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Lack of GRUB"2" Menu > how to start Mint from the command line

If there is no Grub2 menu after booting, but only:

Code: Select all
grub>_


you can start Mint as follows, if grub.cfg is correct:

Code: Select all
set root=(hdX,Y)


Code: Select all
linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/sdXY ro

Code: Select all
initrd /initrd.img


Code: Select all
boot



Example: no own boot partition, rootMint on hard disk /dev/sda in the logical partition /dev/sda12 and GRUB"2" in the MBR of /dev/sda

Code: Select all
set root=(hd0,msdos12)

Code: Select all
linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda12 ro

Code: Select all
initrd /initrd.img

Code: Select all
boot
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Tue Mar 29, 2011 1:15 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
16 Swap
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

16.1 Partition

How to verify if swap is active:

ShotMonitor.png
ShotMonitor.png (41.27 KiB) Viewed 12170 times


ShotSwap.png
ShotSwap.png (36.39 KiB) Viewed 12170 times


If you have a problem with your swap partition check the following:

Code: Select all
seeley-laptop ~ # free

Code: Select all
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:        514516     414012     100504          0      23560     257284
-/+ buffers/cache:     133168     381348
Swap:      1092380          0    1092380


Code: Select all
seeley-laptop ~ # blkid

Code: Select all
...
/dev/sda5: UUID="85647e08-96d1-4796-9105-1bf5a49c0905" TYPE="swap"
/dev/sda6: UUID="97ba1a41-1039-4b0e-84ba-1610a5d1847c" TYPE="ext4" LABEL="rootLMDE"
...


Swap partion is /dev/sda5

Code: Select all
seeley-laptop ~ # cat /etc/fstab

Code: Select all
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
...
# <file system>                            <mount point>   <type>        <options>       <dump> <pass>
proc                                        /proc           proc          defaults        0      0
...
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=f5355ad1-6de9-497b-a8d4-e2abe7336d4d   none            swap          sw              0      0
...


Swap UUID from "blkid": 85647e08-96d1-4796-9105-1bf5a49c0905
and
swap UUID in /etc/fstab: f5355ad1-6de9-497b-a8d4-e2abe7336d4d
differ, so I had to edit /etc/fstab as root:

Code: Select all
seeley-laptop ~ # gksudo gedit /etc/fstab

Code: Select all
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
...
# <file system>                            <mount point>   <type>        <options>       <dump> <pass>
proc                                        /proc           proc          defaults        0      0
...
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
# comment out 24/012011
# UUID=f5355ad1-6de9-497b-a8d4-e2abe7336d4d none            swap          sw              0      0
/dev/sda5                                   swap            swap          sw              0      0
...


16.2 File

Creating a swap file:
http://distrowatch.com/weekly.php?issue=20110117#qa


------------------------------------------------
I did not test creating a swap file.
------------------------------------------------

16.3 Suspend to disk

First check RAM size against swap size!
RAM size must be at least as high as swap size!
Last edited by seeley on Fri Aug 12, 2011 7:57 am, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby Habitual on Tue Mar 29, 2011 1:40 pm

This post should be a sticky in EVERY category that elicits help.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Wed Mar 30, 2011 8:05 am

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
17 PartedMagic
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ScreenshotPM1.png
Screen after having a graphic board problem
ScreenshotPM1.png (459.9 KiB) Viewed 12139 times


ScreenshotPM2.png
Tools: ICONS added to Desktop
ScreenshotPM2.png (391.26 KiB) Viewed 12139 times


TOOLS such as

Partition Editor GParted > chapter 18
UNetbootin can create live USB > chapter 10
Editor Leafpad
Terminal LXTerminal
CD/ DVD burning SimpleBurn
Last edited by seeley on Wed Mar 30, 2011 2:58 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Wed Mar 30, 2011 2:26 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
18 GParted
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

GParted 0.8.0-5

ScreenshotGPa.png
First Screen
ScreenshotGPa.png (359.55 KiB) Viewed 12060 times


ScreenshotGPb.png
Select keymap
ScreenshotGPb.png (375.93 KiB) Viewed 12060 times


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GParted---------------Edit-------------------------View-----------------------Device------------------------Partition--------Help------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Refresh Devices......Undo last operation......Device Information......Create Partition Table......New..................Contents
Devices.....................Clear all operations......Pending Operations....Attempt Data Rescue.......Delete..............About......
Quit............................Apply all operations......File System Support.................................................Resize/ Move..................
...................................................................................................................................................................Copy.................................
...................................................................................................................................................................Paste................................
...................................................................................................................................................................Format to.........................
...................................................................................................................................................................Unmount.........................
...................................................................................................................................................................Manage Flags...............
...................................................................................................................................................................Check..............................
...................................................................................................................................................................Label...............................
...................................................................................................................................................................Information.....................


ScreenshotGPc.png
GP / Partition / Format to
ScreenshotGPc.png (408.18 KiB) Viewed 12060 times
Last edited by seeley on Mon Jul 25, 2011 3:00 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Tue Apr 05, 2011 12:40 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
19 "dd"
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Create a live USB using a Terminal

Set the boot flag, e.g. with Gparted, format to fat32.

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ ls -l /dev/disk/by-id/*usb*

Code: Select all
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root  9 2011-04-03 19:14 /dev/disk/by-id/usb-JetFlash_4GB-0:0 -> ../../sdb
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2011-04-03 19:14 /dev/disk/by-id/usb-JetFlash_4GB-0:0-part1 -> ../../sdb1

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ umount /dev/sdb1

Code: Select all
umount: /dev/sdb1 is not mounted (according to mtab)

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ pwd

- print working directory -
Code: Select all
/home/seeley

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ cd Downloads

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~/Downloads $ sudo dd if=linuxmint-10-gnome-dvd-i386.iso of=/dev/sdb1 bs=4M;sync

Code: Select all
[sudo] password for seeley:

207+1 records in
207+1 records out
872052736 bytes (872 MB) copied, 288.647 s, 3.0 MB/s
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby AlbertP on Wed Apr 20, 2011 1:58 pm

The link to Revo in the dual-boot help is dead, here is a newer link: http://www.revouninstaller.com/start_fr ... nload.html
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Thu May 19, 2011 9:43 am

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
20 Move home
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Successfully tested on Julia, openSUSE and Katya

Concept: German Wiki/ Ubuntuusers.de -> http://wiki.ubuntuusers.de/Home_umziehen

Demands experience!



20.1 Preliminary work

All too often - especially having only one partition, "/", for Mint - the storage space is undersized.
One possible way out is to remove personal data to an extra partition.
Assuming that your /home is within /, an own home partition does not exist.
Target: Moving your home folder to it's own partition / Copy personal data to an extra partition.

If you are familiar with Terminal, GParted, Editors, Text editors please go to 20.2

Pro own home partition:
If Mint crahes, reinstalling will not delete your personal data and settings, if you mount your home partition at "/home" when reinstalling.


Initial situation: Mint on /dev/sda2 (root partition), no own home partition (Julia Gnome respectively Katya)

Booting to Mint

Verification "no own home partition":


Code: Select all
mount


Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ mount
/dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro,commit=0)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
none on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
...


/dev/sda2 on / and no sdaX on /home -> Only one partition for Mint

Running GParted

After having started Mint Julia/GP LinuxMint Debian/GP respectively you see, if you have an own home partition (Mint Julia: no, LMDE: yes)

ShotGP_J_DE.png
ShotGP_J_DE.png (23.87 KiB) Viewed 10943 times


BTW (If GP is not installed):

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-katya ~ $ gparted
The program 'gparted' is currently not installed.  You can install it by typing:
sudo apt-get install gparted

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-katya ~ $ sudo apt-get install gparted
[sudo] password for seeley:
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
Suggested packages:
  reiser4progs kpartx
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  gparted
0 upgraded, 1 newly installed, 0 to remove and 41 not upgraded.
Need to get 499 kB of archives.
After this operation, 1,671 kB of additional disk space will be used
...





Precondition: Familiarize yourself with
> Terminal
> Editors such as gedit (Gnome) or leafpad (PartedMagic)
> Text editor nano or vim (vim is an extended version of the text editor vi)

Take notice of case sensitivity, space, /, "


T E R M I N A L

Creating a test file with the editor gedit:

Code: Select all
gksudo gedit /etc/test


#file /etc/test
#UUID=123... vi
#UUID=456... nano

save

Text editors nano or vi:

Code: Select all
sudo nano /etc/test

del "#"

To save: CTR + O

ScreenshotNano.png
Deleting "#" in the last line of /etc/test
ScreenshotNano.png (25.63 KiB) Viewed 10943 times


Or
Code: Select all
sudo vi /etc/test


| not digit 1, not character l
del "#"

To save: ZZ

Ctrl Alt F1
Back to Desktop:
Ctrl Alt F7

Backup /home
Last edited by seeley on Thu Aug 11, 2011 10:13 am, edited 15 times in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Thu May 19, 2011 3:00 pm

20.2

On Mint Desktop:

To determine the size of the home folder:

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ du -sh /home
1.1G   /home


Note: Testing => Only 1.1 GB

GParted live

Suggestion: PartedMagic/GP 0.8 or GP 0.8

Create a partition (suggestion: ext4) with GParted live
Size must be at least 1.1 GB

If you have questions concerning partitioning please first open a thread (e.g. "GParted: creating a new partition"),
attaching a screenshot of GParted.

Back on Mint Desktop:

To see all partitions:

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-seeley-laptop ~ $ sudo blkid
[sudo] password for seeley:
/dev/sda1: LABEL="System" UUID="B6C411C6C4118A2F" TYPE="ntfs"
/dev/sda2: LABEL="Mint" UUID="9867db83-3638-4175-85de-1a759017e94f" TYPE="ext4"
...
/dev/sda13: LABEL="newHome" UUID="fd5690ab-737c-40e1-96ea-07cb1beefa25" TYPE="ext4"


Code: Select all
gksudo gedit /etc/fstab


Code: Select all
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
...
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
proc            /proc           proc    nodev,noexec,nosuid 0       0
# / was on /dev/sda2 during installation
UUID=9867db83-3638-4175-85de-1a759017e94f /               ext4    errors=remount-ro 0       1
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=85647e08-96d1-4796-9105-1bf5a49c0905 none            swap    sw              0       0


add the following lines with the UUID you get from "blkid" (without quotation marks!)

Code: Select all
# Date <here: 05/19/2011> newHome /dev/sda13 added
#UUID=fd5690ab-737c-40e1-96ea-07cb1beefa25        /home ext4 defaults 0 2

save

Log off from graphical user interface (Gnome) and sign on with
Ctrl + Alt + F1
to a
Text-only interface
- logging on with username and password

The following commands need administrator (root) rights

Code: Select all
sudo -s


ShotPWk.png
Getting administrator rights
ShotPWk.png (121.14 KiB) Viewed 10943 times


Change directory

Code: Select all
cd /


sdXY: new home partition
e.g. X = device a, Y = partition 13 -> sda13 newHome


Code: Select all
mkdir /mnt/tmp

Code: Select all
mount /dev/sda13 /mnt/tmp


Replace sda13 with your new home partition

Copy and verify data (needs time - depending on the size of home!)

Code: Select all
rsync -avx --progress /home/ /mnt/tmp


ScreenshotCp.png
Display: Copying files
ScreenshotCp.png (122.24 KiB) Viewed 10927 times


Code: Select all
mount /dev/sda13 /home


Check:

Code: Select all
du -sh /home; mount|grep /home


OUTPUT:
Code: Select all
/dev/sda13 on /home type ext4 (rw)


Important step!

nano or vi

to delete "#" in the last line of /etc/fstab

e.g.
Code: Select all
nano /etc/fstab


save

Code: Select all
umount /home


Delete the files in the old home folder:

Code: Select all
rm -rf /home/*


Code: Select all
reboot


Back on Desktop

Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ mount
/dev/sda2 on / type ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro,commit=0)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
none on /sys type sysfs (rw,noexec,nosuid,nodev)
...
/dev/sda13 on /home type ext4 (rw,commit=0)


and

ScreenshotGP_a2_a13k.png
GP after having moved home to it's own partition
ScreenshotGP_a2_a13k.png (16.28 KiB) Viewed 10943 times
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Mon Jul 25, 2011 1:01 pm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
21 SystemRescue USB
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


Situation: Computer without CD/ DVD drive.
Necessity to create a live USB flash with Linux tools (e.g. GParted) in Windows, here:
SystemRescueCd
for administrating or repairing your system and data after a crash. It aims to provide an easy way to carry out admin tasks on your computer, such as creating and editing the hard disk partitions

see: http://www.sysresccd.org/Main_Page

http://www.sysresccd.org/Sysresccd-manual-en_How_to_install_SystemRescueCd_on_an_USB-stick
See Manual
A) Recommended USB installation method from Linux
B) Recommended USB installation method from Windows

21.1 USB installation method from Windows


Download SystemRescueCd-x86-2.2.1.iso (324 MiB)
Save downloaded file, e.g. in C:/Downloads.

To check if the file is not corrupted, download a free Program to check md5sum:
Download WinMD5Free: http://www.winmd5.com/
Unzip WinMD5Free.zip: right click on the file and choose apllication, e.g. 7-zip, to unzip the file.
Run WinMD5
Check md5sum
a) WinMD5 itself
compare with md5sum WinMD5Free.exe
b) SystemRescue 2.2.1

W7SysResc1.png
Compute MD5 checksum
W7SysResc1.png (47.93 KiB) Viewed 10024 times


W7SysResc2.PNG
Compare checksums
W7SysResc2.PNG (60.83 KiB) Viewed 10024 times


USB-stick
Windows Explorer (Panel): right click (Admin)
Format as FAT32

Download sysresccd-installer-1.1.2.exe (1.2 MB).

Systemrescue installer: right click - running as Admin
Important! If you don't do that, you can't boot from your USB (I've tested that!)!

W7SysResc3.PNG
SystemRescue USB installer
W7SysResc3.PNG (50.33 KiB) Viewed 10024 times
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Fri Aug 12, 2011 6:37 am

21.2 USB installation method from Linux

Starting from Desktop LMDE (kernel 2.6.39-1.dmz.2-liquorix-amd64):

Download SystemRescueCD.iso; supposing: saved to folder Downloads.
Check md5sum:
Code: Select all
seeley@seeley-laptop ~ $ cd Downloads
seeley@seeley-laptop ~/Downloads $ md5sum systemrescuecd-x86-2.3.0.iso
af035a819f1e0fe3e38c0cfdd83f66a1  systemrescuecd-x86-2.3.0.iso

MATCH!
Plug in the USB stick.

Mount the image and execute the installer

Shot1.png
Terminal: mount and execute
Shot1.png (34.23 KiB) Viewed 9800 times


Maybe you have to umount the USB stick before executing the script:

Trying "bash ./usb_inst.sh" ->

Device [/dev/sdb] detected as [JetFlash Transcend 4GB ] is removable and size=3864MB
* Device [/dev/sdb] is mounted: cannot use it
All valid USB/Removable devices are currently mounted, unmount these devices first


My Transcend USB contained (and contains) a primary fat32 partition /dev/sdb1, and a boot flag was set (with GParted), so

Code: Select all
seeley-laptop cdrom # umount /dev/sdb
umount: /dev/sdb: not mounted
seeley-laptop cdrom # umount /dev/sdb1


After having executed the script you see a list of USB sticks;
click in the field " [ ]" in front of the right stick

Shot2.png
Select USB device
Shot2.png (13.8 KiB) Viewed 9800 times



Shot3.png
Installation on /dev/sdb
Shot3.png (25.61 KiB) Viewed 9800 times


After a few minutes:
Success Installation successfully completed



21.3 System Rescue

Please see screenshots:
http://www.sysresccd.org/Screenshots
and online manual!

Xfce4 panel 4.8.3
Tools: GParted 0.9,...

BTW: My WLAN immediately was detected!
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Sat Aug 13, 2011 5:43 am

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
22 Bluetooth
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Please first make sure that you really have BT.

As I learned to know: some computers have a BT button, but no BT adapter; see:
Aspire 1810TZ

KDE:

i) The BT adapter is not visible

shotBT1.png
BT adapter hidden -> visible
shotBT1.png (48.58 KiB) Viewed 9757 times


If you can't connect:

As root:
Code: Select all
mint mint # hcitool scan
Scanning ...
        00:07:61:BA:93:38       Bluetooth Laser Travel Mouse
        00:16:B8:90:25:AF       Phone
mint mint # hidd --connect 00:07:61:BA:93:38
The program 'hidd' is currently not installed.  You can install it by typing:
apt-get install bluez-compat


After having installed the package:

Code: Select all
mint mint # hidd --connect 00:07:61:BA:93:38
mint mint #

Success!

ii) BT adapter is not recognized

Maybe you need to switch from the HID mode into the HCI mode,
but the command "hid2hci" is not available in all distris -> See

Code: Select all
man hid2hci


If available, you must find out the Hexcode of the vendor and the product
(on a Linux with working BT or in the net)

Part of my Terminal output (Dell notebook):

Code: Select all
seeley-laptop seeley # lsusb
Bus 003 Device 002: ID 0a5c:4500 Broadcom Corp. BCM2046B1 USB 2.0 Hub (part of BCM2046 Bluetooth)
Bus 003 Device 003: ID 413c:8157 Dell Computer Corp. Integrated Keyboard
Bus 003 Device 004: ID 413c:8158 Dell Computer Corp. Integrated Touchpad / Trackstick
Bus 003 Device 005: ID 413c:8156 Dell Computer Corp. Wireless 370 Bluetooth Mini-card

-> Hexcodes: 413c and 8156

So:
Code: Select all
hid2hci --method=dell --vendor=413c --product=8156
Attempting to switch device 413c:8156 to HCI mode was successful


Bluetooth not working on laptop (Toshiba M100):
viewtopic.php?f=141&t=56621
Last edited by seeley on Thu May 23, 2013 12:10 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Quickly get help

Postby seeley on Thu May 24, 2012 5:55 am

1.
KDE Partition Manager 1.0.3: Booting from a live USB created with PartedMagic/ UNetbootin now works.
2.
BT now works on Maya MATE:
http://forums.linuxmint.com/viewtopic.php?f=206&t=102417
3.
At the moment, I'm testing the new Mint Distributions; my main OS is Isadora Gnome 64 bit (Isadora KDE 64 bit works fine too).

My new notebook,Dell Precision M 4400, had/ has a problem with the following Mint editions,
especially Maya 64 bit Cinnamon and LMDE Cinnamon: slow.
seeley @ Linux multiboot
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