OK no Smart monitoring - I guess this means that it is an old disk, nearly all modern disks have this facility built in.
Do you have a raid or lvm setup on this disk (or did you have in the past)? I don't think this is likely, but is this a Uefi machine?
The "unable to inform" error can be a result of a partition being mounted and the favourite is 'swap'. You could try repeating the exercise with gparted but before deleting all your partitions right click on the swap partition and select 'Swapoff' ( assuming firstly that you actually have a swap partition - or any partitions - and secondly that it is switched on, possibly neither of these is true). See if that makes a difference.
Going back to your original error as I said this can be caused by bad sectors on the disk (though this is not guaranteed to be the answer, only one avenue to explore). The trouble here is that the normal check tools like fsck are designed to check partitions with file systems on them and not whole disks with just unallocated space, and that seems to be what you have got. The usual answers are to find the disk manufacturer, go to their website and look for a disk check utility in their downloads (otherwise ultimate bootcd has a collection of these drive checkers built in - http://www.ultimatebootcd.com/
). However this means you have to download and burn some tool before you can even start to check anything, and like I said this might not be the answer anyway.
There is one tool that Linux has that is capable of doing this and will already be present on the live dvd - badblocks. To use this you boot from the live dvd and assuming your drive is dev/sda you run the command:
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sudo badblocks -sv /dev/sda
This will take hours to complete but will show you a progress bar as it goes on. The trouble is with this technique is that it doesn't fix anything it only shows up problems. It can be made to fix problems by incorporating its output into fsck, but fsck only checks file systems not disks and you don't have any and can't create any - so Catch 22
You may not think it is worth running, up to you. Not only that but the usual advice with damaged disks is to replace them not to repair them.
The last possibility is checking the installation medium in another computer or on another drive to see if it is the download or burn of your live dvd that is at fault rather than the hard disk on your pc. That may not be possible for you I don't know. You say the machine has recently been running Fedora, if you still have the installation medium for that you could try installing that again. If that works without any issues then it is unlikely there is any problem with your hard disk and it may be your Mint dvd that needs replacing.
Going back to my second sentence, Fedora used to have this love affair with lvm (setting it as the default some years ago). If Fedora set up your disk in this way and it somehow still believes it is part of an lvm array this could be the cause of your problems. I had this problem years ago and had a dreadful time trying to rid myself of the lvm that Fedora set up without my noticing. If I remember correctly I had to completely wipe the whole hard drive with a disk wiping utility before I could ever use it again. I don't think Fedora do that these days, but I don't know for sure.