JCChristian wrote:1. As you can see in the signature, I have HDD + mSATA, so the following partition scheme is the best for my situation?
HDD: [500GB-> / * Encrypted with LUKS]
mSATA: [200MB -> EFI] + [200MB -> /boot ] + [8GB -> swap * Encrypted with LUKS] + ["rest" -> unallocated]
I don't happen to have any SSDs myself; however, my understanding is that placing swap on an SSD is sub-optimal because if it gets used often, it will wear out the SSD too quickly, and if swap doesn't get used much, you'll see no speed benefit from that placement. Both the EFI System Partition (ESP) and the Linux /boot partition are accessed only briefly at boot time (and very infrequently therafter), so they also won't get much speed benefit from being placed on the ESP.
Instead, if the SSD is big enough, I'd put the Linux root (/) partition on it, split off /home to be on the spinning disk, and put the Linux /boot partition, swap partition, and ESP on the spinning disk, too. If there's enough space on the SSD, you might create a separate data partition there, to be mounted within your home directory, for user data you access frequently and that might benefit from the speed advantage of an SSD.
If this is dual-booting with Windows, you may need to get it to coexist, too, and that may impose size limits that would make my recommendation impractical. Likewise if the SSD is really tiny.
3. Should I format the "/" with Ext4 or XFS?
Ext4fs seems to be more popular, but either will work. One note: If you don't
split off a separate /boot partition, using ext4fs on root (/) will give you more boot loader options. If you do
split off a separate /boot partition, I recommend using ext2/3/4fs or ReiserFS.
4. Which partition should I point in the "Device for boot loader installation" during the installation, as my system is UEFI, I think I should point to the EFI Partition (200MB), correct?
It's unclear what purpose such a query, if present, poses on an EFI install, since the ESP is the only
place that an EFI boot loader can reside. I suppose it might make sense to ask this question if a computer has multiple ESPs, but if there's just one, it's just confusing. In the past, such queries were leftover detritus from BIOS-mode installs and were ignored in EFI-mode installs. I don't know if Mint is still suffering from such a vestigial query, since I haven't installed Mint 15 yet.
5. How can I boot Linux Mint using UEFI [if I try the normal installation (/ + EFI + /boot + swap) I get stuck at GRUB black screen "grub>"]?
Unfortunately, the answer depends very much on the computer in question; some have bugs that cause problems for GRUB. If you can't get it to work, though, you could do a BIOS-mode install and then install an EFI-mode boot loader once the BIOS-mode install is complete. Several are available.
Alternatively, if you're not dual-booting with an existing EFI-mode Windows installation, you could do a BIOS-mode install and leave it that way.