According to your output of "sudo parted -l", you ended up with a mixed install environment. Your Vista is installed using the MBR partition format. Somehow Mint ended up installed in GPT partition format. Not going to bother going into long-winded explaination on that.
Basically that means your computer uses UEFI/EFI firmware when initially booting up vs. the traditional BIOS firmware. You're going to need to get into the UEFI settings menu and change the way it boots your DVD or USB (whatever you used to install Mint). There are probably two ways it will boot DVD's and USB's -- in either UEFI mode or CSM/Legacy/Bios mode. It looks like that setting is set to UEFI mode. You need to change that setting to CSM/Legacy/Bios mode (wording may be exactly as I stated). Then you'll need to do the install over again and it should work.BEFORE CHANGING THE SETTINGS
, disconnect the cables to your Vista drive
, then boot back up with your live DVD/USB. (Keep the Mint drive hooked up.) In live Mint look in the Menu under "Administration" and see if there is a program called GParted. If so, then open that program. If not, you need to install it first. To install GParted:
*** Go to Menu -> Accessories -> Terminal and open the Terminal.
*** Copy/paste the following command into the terminal and hit enter:
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sudo apt-get install gparted
*** Type "y" to accept any additional packages that may be needed (if asked) and hit enter.
*** When the command prompt returns the installation is complete and you can close the terminal window.
*** GParted will now show in the Menu under "Administration" category -- open it.Once in GParted:
*** Right-click on all partitions and "delete" them.
*** If the swap partition does not allow for deletion that just means that it is mounted. To unmount the swap partition, right-click it and choose "Swapoff". Then you can right-click it again and delete it.
*** Hit the "Apply" button (it's one of the arrow symbols along the top) to finalize all deletions.
*** After all partitions are gone, go to "Device" and select "Create Partition Table".
*** Then make sure you select to make it a "msdos" partition table.
*** Now your done. Close GParted and shutdown Mint.NOW YOU NEED TO CHANGE THE UEFI SETTINGS.
Use a search engine to look up how to get into your computer's UEFI/BIOS settings upon startup if you don't already know how to do that. It differs from one manufacturer to the next. Usually you hit a key like "F2", or "DEL", or "Esc" when you first start-up. (Manufacturer may refer to it as "BIOS" settings even if it is actually UEFI firmware -- so do your search both ways if need be.)
In the UEFI, there may be two separate areas that allow for specifying the boot mode. One may be for setting the general boot mode of the computer. The other (if it exists) specifically deals with how other media like DVD's and USB's are booted. Since Vista is already installed as MBR type, your best bet is to change both of those settings to "Legacy only", or "BIOS only", or something worded along those lines.
Once that change has been made you should be good to go. Hook both drives up -- Windows in first position, Mint in second position. (I'm assuming that is how you originally had Windows. Your "parted -l" output showed it in 2nd position, but I'm guessing that you moved things around in an attempt to get Mint booted.)
Now boot with Mint DVD/USB and do install again. It should install properly now.