I'm Afraid that version 0.10.25 is the latest version in the repositories at this time. So it would not be possible to upgrade it until a newer version is packaged.
nodejs version 0.10.29 is out but you would have to build it from Source code. It has not been packaged for Mint yet.
There could be any number of reason for that. including incompatibility with other software in Mint 17.
See this page for source code if you want to try to build it yourself. http://nodejs.org/download/
You can download a .deb package from debian sid, but it may break other things on your system.
That package is found here: https://packages.debian.org/sid/nodejs