Boot to a Windows XP recovery console, assuming your XP is on drive C: do this from the console:
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chkdsk C: /p /r
Reboot and do it again, just to be sure.
When the installer repartitioned, something went wrong, as you know. Whenever an ntfs volume is resized, it needs a disk check, but if for some reason Windows doesn't do it automatically, or can't do it, you can run into problems.
Also, it is best to defrag in safe mode before running the Mint installer.