I have no knowledge of this personally so cannot vouch for it in any way
Did a quick search on google using 'recover messages from Samsung Galaxy linux' and found many solutions offered for windows pc, but not so many for linux. I did find this offering http://www.byclouder.com/help/recovery/mobile/samsung/how-to-recover-samsung-galaxy-express-file.html
and you can probably find more by spending more time looking than I did and including the exact model in the search query.
I would highly recommend checking out more details of any software before downloading though, as it seems to me that this type of product could be a prime target for fraudsters and malware as it would have access to both phone and pc.
Depending on the value you place on the lost data it may be worth contacting professional data recovery specialists.