As far as I can tell, the "exploit" requires the user to execute code at root privs.
"the exploit uses the Linux compiler to overcome the security features"
If you compile code with this exploit, you'll have a binary that rootkits your system.
If you install someone else's binary, which most of us do, and the exploit is already written into the code, the binary rootkits your system.
All of this requires executing at root privs in the first place, either to install the package or or compile. Or it requires you allowing remote login of other users who have already exploited your ssh.
Here's where I see a potential for this exploit:
On a system with multiple user access accounts, so not your typical home user linux install, where you might have several people logged in at once. So more your academic or business type install. Where individual users, without root access, can compile and execute their own code. J Random Luser compiles code with this exploit, and thereby rootkits the system to gain greater access.