offers a rough equivalent to that and other apt commands. However, in terms of fixing Arch, for me the easiest way usually involves the Arch Rollback Machine
, then checking the updates advisories to find out if there are any special actions I need to take to enable an upgrade. This sometimes happens when there is some sort of updates that changes the underlying system architecture in some way.
In six years I've never encounter a large breakage that wasn't accompanied by an advisory of some sort. There were a couple small ones that weren't, but they were easy enough to fix by searching the forums.