I've done this myself, if you did what I did. You used a Live USB, and the installer put the bootloader for your hard disk on the USB drive. If this sounds confusing, it is.
First and foremost, as many will tell you, you never install a bootloader to a certain partition of the disk, you install it to the disk itself. So instead of sda1 or sda2, you install to /dev/sda.
Secondly, I don't know why it does this, but by default Mint will put the bootloader on your Live USB, which makes it not a Live USB anymore. It makes it your hard drive bootloader with the Mint live environment buried beneath. You can boot your OS, which is the same deal I had. To fix this, from your new install, open a terminal and run the following commands:
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sudo grub-install /dev/sdX
Where X is the device letter for the hard drive you've installed Mint to. If you have just one disk, it's most likely /dev/sda. You can confirm it using the "df" command or "fdisk -l".
To recover your Live USB, you can re-burn it or just try to restore the bootloader. Just telling you my experience and hoping it helps.