When you install that .deb package it also created an entry in your sources.list file.
This means that from then on, chrome will update via mintupdate with the rest of your programs.
So yeah, you'll be notified when a new version is released and be able to upgrade like any other package.
PC: LMDE x64 MATE/Cinnamon, Kernel 3.9, Nvidia GT620, i7 3770K, 16GB RAM
Laptop: LMDE x64 MATE, Kernel 3.8.6, i3, 6GB RAM