I think we found it. Not enough room in '/Home' to write the users desktop.
ps: Your swap size is okay.
The possible/probable reason is that Windows gets very fragmented, and will not release enough space to use for Mint.
Now you can try the 'free' option in the recovery console, but I think that will fail. As it will only try to release space in Mint.
Second, go into Windows, clean & defragment the hard drive, delete old files etc. Free up as much space as you can. Then it is time for a re-install of Mint! . . .
Sorry, but this may be the only way of getting Mint up and running.
You may want to wait around a while before biting the bullet, to see if someone else has an alternative.
Sorry for being the harbinger of bad news!
ps: In the Tutorial/How To section of this forum, you will find a great article from Fred, it is a long read, but WELL worth it. Link below:viewtopic.php?f=90&t=11872