What are your top tips for a Newbie?

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby scryan on Sun Aug 17, 2014 4:36 am

asciiman wrote:
MacLindroid wrote:But I am not sure I fully understand the advantage in "nesting" these Primary partitions within a larger Extended partion. Can anyone expand on that?

Thanks for the cool forum.

For the most part your going to be using GPT or MBR partition table. MBR is typical of older windows stuff (IIRC XP will not see a device formatted to GPT) GPT is typically used for newer stuff and linux.

MBR only allows 4 primary partitions, so if more are desired they must be "nested" as you say within an extended partition (which will then only count as one).
Not needed for GPT, which allows as many partitions as needed.

As far as who has what terminology right.... I only use 4 primary partitions, so I forget, but if I am not mistaken the "extended" partition is the "container" that holds what ever logical partitions you want. Primary partitions should be a single "traditional" partition...But you can check for yourself to make sure I am correct by adding partitions to a MBR disk in gparted and seeing what it calls them, no changes are made until you press "apply" so DONT DO THAT.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby asciiman on Sun Aug 17, 2014 11:34 am

Great! Thanks for the excellent clarification.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby asciiman on Sun Aug 17, 2014 1:57 pm

scryan wrote:but if I am not mistaken the "extended" partition is the "container" that holds what ever logical partitions you want. Primary partitions should be a single "traditional" partition...


Actually, Primaries can reside within an Extended. Here is what I am running on now...

Image

System ( / ) and Home (/home) as Primaries contained in the Extended. The Ext4 and NTFS for backup as described in the earlier poster's description.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby vier986 on Mon Aug 18, 2014 11:15 pm

A lot of posts say read,Read-But What.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby expat_tony on Tue Aug 19, 2014 7:29 am

vier986 wrote:A lot of posts say read,Read-But What.

This is a good basis for a new topic. Don't let it get lost in this huge one, start your own!
You might just need to tweak the title line a bit.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby scryan on Tue Aug 19, 2014 6:45 pm

vier986 wrote:A lot of posts say read,Read-But What.

Yes.



OK, fine :D to expand I think this is said so generally for because its ment in a couple of ways... (or at least that Is why I state it like that.)

First, and a little more optional... Read the manual, read a book, read the support forums, ect... Some will talk about how hard linux is, while others will assure you that anyone can do it. The truth is its not THAT hard, but you will be expected to learn and know more. Linux, especially in its younger days provided you with a working system to use...But kind of expects you to know what your doing. A lot of people have put a lot of work into programs and distros that are user friendly and intuitive... But it pales in comparison to commercial OS where an entire department poured piles of money at the software to make sure that not only could those who don't really know what they are doing make it work, but that it would work to for those who are basically offended by the notion that they would be expected to understand what they are doing in the first place. As easy as linux becomes, due to the nature of its development (normal people building you things for free) your probably always going to have to come a little closer to meeting the developer in the middle and learning some things yourself.

Secondly, and perhaps more importantly... Keep that head up and pay attention. Perhaps its the fault of so many years of windows bluescreens offering us "fault 0xA99994F3B" or what ever the hell it is. Perhaps its so many years of being coddled and expecting customer service to fix it. Perhaps its just learned behavior of the way it is done in the windows world... But don't just say "Ohhh, I got an error so it does not work."
So many newbie help requests because the lines they copied and pasted "Didn't work because they had an error".
"What did that error say?"
"I don't know I closed it. Why wont my program work?"
When there are popups, or error messages READ. You may not understand everything, but I CANNOT TELL YOU how often people blindly follow directions, then come and complain it doesn't work. When asked for a log of the terminal messages, its clear they downloaded a file with a version number, say "some-file-V1.2.5.tar" when the directions were written for "some-file-V1.2.4.tar". That alone is not necessarily a big deal, but you will see them post a log that looks something like
*first they post a link to the file some-file-V1.2.5 they downloaded*
Code: Select all
$: tar -xvf some-file-V1.2.4
tar: some-file-V1.2.4: Cannot open: No such file or directory
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
$: cd some-file-1.2.4
bash: cd: some-file-1.2.4: No such file or directory
$: ./configure
bash: ./configure: No such file or directory
$: make
make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found.  Stop.

"Teh tutorial didn't work! HELPZ!"

So often people just go "OH THERE WHERE ERROR MESSAGES! IT DOESN'T WORK! LINUX IS TERRIBLE AT COMPUTER!"
Now part of this goes back to point 1. If you have ready some stuff you know that tar is a program to unzip, and the .tar.gz package is compressed and should give us a folder of stuff if we do this right.
VERY QUICKLY we should see the errors started with our first command.
Paying more attention we can see the first command could not find a file, even though we just downloaded one... What did you download and why didn't it work (at that point you should be able to see you are using a command with a different file name. Seem simple? Yup. Sometimes the output will be longer, but taken one command at a time... whats the difference?

We see the errors continue on each line, indeed this is a huge mess and EVERYTHING FAILED! flail your arms, cry on the floor and run for your wallet to purchase 3 new copies of the latest microsoft offering...
Or actually READ each error and see that the second command tried to enter the folder created by decompressing the tarball in the first step... OF COURSE THIS WILL FAIL. Each command then there after should be expected to fail as we didn't even get the directory we were supposed to be issuing the subsequent commands in set up.
This is an easyish example, and again some formal knowledge would really help but more then anything don't look at error messages as something to be dissmissed to quickly. Read them at a minimum, copy them down if need be and try to at least get the jist of what is complaining. If you don't know what the utility is that is issuing the error, look it up on google. You don't have to have a mastery on every thing given to you but pay attention to what step complained about what and see if at least some of the words don't make sense to you... then give a quick google, look through man pages and copy and paste the generic part of the error, starting at the begining. The first error we saw was
"tar: some-file-V1.2.4: Cannot open: No such file or directory"
So lets google search
"tar: Cannot open: No such file or directory"
https://www.google.com/search?q=tar%3A+ ... 2&ie=UTF-8
No quotes on the actual search, because I omitted the file name and just want something to match that general output...
Reading the first couple of results shows some forum discussions reminding us that the file we are running tar on needs to exist and we need to own it or have rights to mess with it.

So READ.
On the commands you are issuing, and the errors they are giving.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby JohnBobSmith on Tue Aug 26, 2014 2:20 pm

I read your entire post scryan. I couldn't agree more. Error's are an important part of computers! Any good error message resulting from normal usage will usually tell you what the problem is, where it ocurred, and, sometimes, steps you could take to fix it. IE entering the wrong terminal command will often suggest you try different commands. Like, here is a pasted output:

Code: Select all
johnbobsmith@JohnBobSmith-desktop ~ $ sduo
No command 'sduo' found, did you mean:
 Command 'sudo' from package 'sudo' (main)
 Command 'sudo' from package 'sudo-ldap' (universe)
sduo: command not found


It even tells you that you spelled sudo wrong. If your thinking "WAIT A MINUTE! NO IT DOESNT!" Then I will tell you some things are implied. "sduo: command not found" means, with a little infering, that you spelled sudo wrong.

That said, be careful about what you type into a terminal. Some things will utterly destroy ones system, or at least the home directory (learned that the hard way...) However, a terminal is sometimes the most efficient way to get things done.

With that said, my top tip for newbies (I still am one myself) is to be willing to learn. You will not, and quite frankly, can not do things the exact same way in Windows and Linux. I use the both regularly. They are like comparing the taste of apples to oranges. While they are both fruit (both Windows and Linux are OS'es) they taste very different (meaning they do things differently). I hope my analogy helps.

So, as long as you are willing to learn, have an open mind, and remember to read error messages, I think that you will find Linux to be a rock-solid OS that can get things done. All in a more efficient, productive way. I wish you new guys the best of luck on your Linux adventure! :)
Running on ancient hardware and a now super-charged linux only laptop. :D
Windows free since September 4th, 2014 @ 19:47 Mountain standard time.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby tmtlib on Sat Aug 30, 2014 1:42 pm

I found it useful changing DNS address to google or comodo. It solves "not resolved" errors while trying to install programs. It is strange, that "not resolved" addresses still can be opened with Firefox without DNS alteration, maybe app manager opening such addresses in some other ways, so default DNS of your connection fails.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby JohnBobSmith on Sat Aug 30, 2014 10:03 pm

tmtlib wrote:I found it useful changing DNS address to google...


Oh man, I came to linux to avoid google and cyber spies/crooks as much as possible. You do realize that google could, in theory, track every website that you visit if you are using their DNS servers? Im not saying that they do that, but its a possiblity. And, since I'm somewhat paranoid, I choose to avoid google/microsoft as much as possible. Not trying to spread FUD (fear, uncertantity, and doubt), but I don't want google tracking my every move. Thankfully, linux gives me that choice. :)


That said, another tip for new guys would be to educate youself. Learn everything you can. Dont ever stop learning something new. Find a passion, and pursue it. You will be remembered for your successes, not your failures. Thats about it. Have fun!
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby turtlebay777 on Sat Aug 30, 2014 10:06 pm

Amen , JBS!
For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby Mangar on Sat Aug 30, 2014 10:46 pm

There is no anonymous web browsers, ... first even if you think you go to a site anomalously your internet provider issues you an IP address.
1. If you visit illegal sites where say the NSA or other authorities taps between OR on the lines they can watch the IP traffic both ways.
2. If they wish to crush an illegal or bad place or person they can get all the IPs that hit that location.
3.Then they turn around and see the so called IP address say 123.456.7.89 comes from internet provider Jonny High Speed Corp. they issues a warrant from that access carrier
4. the carrier then say on the 4th of the month June, account number 435675-54 was used/issued to John Smith, then they pull all the IP address that you channel through your Service provider (all IP traffic). then they know what bank you use, what stores you visit and who your buddies are from your traffic IPs to and from at internet mail site, and that they go after those too which shows a history record from your internet provider from your account connected to the web. Why do you think hackers use public hot-spots or use other peoples internet connections to do bad things.

So talking browsers gonna keep you safe? Please! if you do Illegal stuff they watch and follow back the IP of bread crumbs to you (even email messages IP info). If you are under watch and did not do anything most likely someone your associated with they have grabbed you in a drag net. Notice any browser had nothing to do with the above tracking down illegal abusers. That even goes for those people they watch at pirated software sites, pirated movie downloads and those people that upload items via their member login via IP address. bottom line you do stupid stuff they can see it, I am point out below this ways to minimize damage if on pc gets hacked or compromised, Like never put all your eggs in one basket!

Now Browsers, depends on a poorly built website that uses cookies or data stored on your computer like visits like tracking info.
You visit a bank it places a cookie of your visit
You go back a day later it pulls the cookie from your computer your last visit was yesterday.
A hacker via malware can request a list of common cookies off your computer and can tell what your sites you visit by the cookies it can get off your computer and even the advertisement ads that have been displayed on your computer.
They can tell if you like Religious sites by ad cookies it can lift, or sport ads, and in some cases which ones you clicked.
If a hacker knows how a common site places a bit of info store on your computer, they can request it the same way as the original site would have requested it of your computer.

My opinion, have one gaming computer and web surf, and keep a banking computer strictly for banking and shopping online where you know exactly what url you will visit to buy from. Don't use your banking PC to float around the web looking for various items at unknown stores just to browse them. and when your done Clear all your cache, cookies, and remove all tracking items and history place on your pc when your done each time.
And don't let your kids use the banking PC for Skype and chat rooms and extra tool bars and stuff or for gaming.

If your gaming PC or web surfing computer becomes corrupted (hopefully never with Linux) you can rebuild them quickly. and have separate email accounts one for your banking and personal info only for that stuff and medical or doctors like kids school and stuff, then another junky email for your surfing and coupons and dumb sign up give-a-ways. after a while you'll noticed your junky email with fill up real fast with spam. Don't put all your 5 emails on one PC in the same email provider, if it gets compromised all your emails and accounts for each family member could be compromised.

That goes for phone also, banking or shopping from your phone??? can't it wait 30 minutes till you get home on a more secure device!!! people need to stop dropping crumbs everywhere all from one device because of convenience.
Life after Windows! the future looks MINT!
completely new to Linux here is a quick overall for 1st timers Lingo curve http://www.linfo.org/newbies.html
Alternative applications to what Windows users do things http://www.linuxalt.com/
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Postby Falconus on Thu Sep 04, 2014 3:42 pm

Backup, backup, backup. In two different places. I am currently using two USB external hard drives; some people also use internet cloud storage like Dropbox because that won't melt if your house burns down. If you've never backed your stuff up on a regular basis, get into the habit of it NOW. I mean, today. Additionally, you absolutely should back up all of the data you care about before you start installing new operating systems (like Linux Mint). It is really quite dangerous not to, in case either you select the wrong options about what part of the drive to install it on or if your computer screws up the drive repartitioning (unlikely but a possibility).

There are a few things to keep in mind:
1. You are learning how to use a new, fairly powerful, system. You will learn how to do pretty interesting things with it. Sometimes you will also learn how to do dumb things with it. You won't realize that it was a bad idea until after you did it. That's the learning curve. I lost some of my data that way once because I was slacking on my backups.
2. It's not infallible. I think that Linux Mint is probably more reliable in many ways than Windows - or maybe that's because I'm so used to it now that I'm losing my Windows proficiency. Nevertheless, like in Windows, there is a chance that you'll run across a bug that will make life difficult for you. If you already have your stuff diligently backed up, it's going to be less stressful knowing that you still have most or all of your data (for software issues though, you can usually recover the files off of your computer, so don't despair).
3. Hardware breaks. If all of your data is on one little hard drive, you have all your eggs in one basket. That hard drive is doomed to fail one day, no matter what operating system you are using. You don't always see it coming, and it may be expensive or impossible to get your data off of a failed drive. If you have two backup drives that are kept reasonably up to date, you don't have to worry about it so much.
4. Computers get lost or stolen. If you have a laptop, you absolutely need a backup system that doesn't travel with your computer. A lot of Mint users are on laptops these days. It's a big problem.
5. Your backup drive is destined to fail someday too. That's why you should have your backup in at least two places. It is not unheard of that somebody's computer fails and they discover that their backup drive is kaputt as well. It's terribly bad luck, but it has happened before. If you have your data in three places (computer & two drives for example), this is far less likely to happen.

I use a program called LuckyBackup for my stuff on Linux. LuckyBackup is available in the software manager, and it is fairly easy to use. It is a good idea to backup your entire home directory (if my account username on my computer were Falconus, my home directory would be found at /home/falconus/), because that is generally where all of your personal data is (unless you are storing it somewhere else, in the system folders, which is not wise). The nice thing about LuckyBackup is that it can update your backup files. This means that instead of taking 40 minutes to transfer your 70gb (okay, I have a ton of photos... Don't judge me) of stuff every week when you backup your system, you have the option of just replacing files that have been modified, adding new files, and deleting files that you deleted off of your computer. The files that you didn't change will not have to be retransferred. Just be aware that this option ("delete files on the destination" Command Option under the "Advanced" task properties) means that the program will remove everything in the destination folder that is not a part of the current backup operation. This is nice because you don't preserve every deleted file you ever had at the time of a backup, but it also means that your destination folder should be dedicated specifically to the backup. You can have other folders elsewhere on your drive (that's no problem, just remember to backup everything you care about that's not on your computer too). The good thing is that this means that if it takes 40 minutes the first time, it might only take a few (five?) minutes the subsequent times.

If you do not have a lot of data, MintBackup might work for you. It has never really worked for me. There are other options available too, if you search online. A program called "Back in Time" has been spoken highly of in several forums about backups, but I can't vouch for it because I have never used it. This program is also available in your software manager on Linux Mint.
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