Ok, I will start off by saying I am not a total newbie to Linux, but this is my first installation of a full-blown linux desktop machine on brand new hardware. So far I am really liking LMDE, but there is something that has always frustrated me about linux, and that is "understanding" where applications are installed and why they are there. For example, Windows installs all applications in the "Program Files" folder by default, and OSX in an "Applications" folder. However, some linux applications get installed to /usr/share, and others just seem to get installed to other random places. Is there even a loose standard for this on linux? But now on to my questions.
1.) I am running LMDE with Cinnamon desktop and have installed Cairo dock. The problem I am now having when creating new launchers is tracking down the application in the filesystem AND the corresponding icon. If you know the package name, you can do ie. "which google-chrome" from terminal and see the installation path. So by doing this, after I installed Chrome using Gdebi package installer, I was able to find the installation of chrome and now have a working launcher in Cairo dock for it - but with no Google Chrome icon. Obviously the .deb package had to install the chrome icon somewhere on the system, but I can't for the life of me find it. I also have the same issue with the Handbrake application. I was able to use the "which handbrake-gtk" at terminal to get a launcher going, but I can't find where the handbrake icon is located either.
2.) I am running Chrome stable (official one from google) and installed using the Gdebi package installer. I can launch it from my Cairo dock now, but it is doesn't show up anywhere in the Cinnamon/Mint menu. I read on another post to right-click on "Menu", choose edit menu and in the right pane check the box next to "debian". However, when I try to do this, I have to "debian" option to check. How can I get Google Chrome in my Cinnamon application menu under Internet?
So as you can see my main issue here is understanding why it is so difficult to get menu and launcher icons setup after applications are installed, because no installed application is ever in the location. Any help with this is extremely appreciated, and if I am missing something, please do tell.