It depends. A power outage can cause bad sectors. They can probably be fixed. A deteriorating disk surface or read/write head you may fix some errors now, but they will be back. Noone here could even guess without you posting your SMART numbers. There are lots of disk scanning programs out there from HDD manufacturers, Windows and Linux. You can easily Google search this. Just be aware that these programs are very HDD intensive. They scan the entire disk. If you have a fragile disk to begin with, it may only make it worse. Be prepared with a new drive and save all your important files before you try to fix.
i5 3570k, ASRock z77 Extreme 4, 8 Gb Ripjaws 1600, Antec 430w psu, HVR 1600 tv tuner, custom case- marble top, oak face. Carver & DCM Time Window sound system. Mint 14 KDE.