Welcome to Linux Mint
Indeed, Ctrl+Alt+F1 through F6 bring you to a virtual terminal from where you can kill any hanging processes if needed. If all else fails, you can press Ctrl+Alt+Backspace to kill your entire session and be taken back to the login screen. The kernel also has a, as it is known, "magic SysRQ key" from which you may shut down gracefully a non-responsive system. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magic_SysRq_key
for more about that. To kill just one program, you can also press Alt+F2 and run "xkill". That will turn your mouse cursor into a cross hairs. Left-clicking a window will kill the program that owns that window. Right-clicking will cancel the action. I usually bind the keyboard sequence Ctrl+Alt+Del to run xkill.