Eh, .gz files are not tarballs, they are just compressed files. .tar.gz
files are tarballs, so called because it's a compressed 'tar'. I should know, I help manage a system that produces hundreds if not thousands of them daily.
Sometimes the file suffix is .tgz instead of .tar.gz .
Ton unpack a tarball, run this command in a terminal window:
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tar zxpf <name of .tar.gz file>
It will unpack the tarball within your current directory. Typically you'll get a directory with the same name (without .tar.gz) with further files and directories in it.