Great. This was a little success.
You are able to connect now but some problems are not solved. 5 minutes is too long time and maybe the transfer speed of files will be too slow too. I see very long round trip delays associated to Wifi.
I recommend this test. Connect both computers using Ethernet for tests. You should disable wifi on laptop. Check if delays and speed are fine with a wired connection.
In relation with shortcut, open Dolphin and click on right button of mouse in Places (Emplacements) area. Select Add Entry and fill Label and Location. Type "smb://Jocelyn@inspiron537/Donnée I357/Données/" in box Location. Finally click on Ok. If you wish, you can use the private IP address also: "smb://Jocelyn@192.168.0.102/Donnée I357/Données/".