Adding a 2nd internal SSD

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whazzupdoc
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Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Mon Aug 13, 2018 6:41 pm

I'm still struggling but it's getting a little easier. However, I just installed a 500GB internal SSD on my Toshiba C655. I replaced the optical DVD with a caddy for the SSD. It's in...it's recognized in the Boot but I don't know now how to integrate it into the Cinnamon 18.3 OS. The main HD is still in place and the purpose of the SDD is merely for storage at this time. What do I need to do?
Thanks!
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by Joe2Shoe » Mon Aug 13, 2018 7:24 pm

Congrats! I did the same thing on one of my laptops. You can use it as a data drive by editing fstab.

In this tutorial, the new SSD is named "Data". Change the name to whatever.

1. Use GParted from a live Mint DVD/USB to setup the new SSD. Then format the SSD according to your needs -- eg. Ext4 if using just Linux OS's; NTFS if sharing data with MS Windows. Here is a GParted tutorial if you need it: http://www.dedoimedo.com/computers/gparted.html.

(NOTE: It may be best to copy/paste these commands. On some it is hard to tell that spaces are between some of the characters and that may cause an error if you mis-type them.)

2. Create a mount point for the SSD Data drive:
sudo mkdir /mnt/Data

* Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever.

3. Mount the partition:
sudo mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/Data

* Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever.

* Use GParted to determine the correct path to your 500GB SSD, in my case it's "/dev/sda3".

* Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever.

4. Take ownership of the mount point:
sudo chown -R latitude-d620: /mnt/Data

* Replace "latitude-d620" with the username of your pc.
* Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever.

OR

After installation, make your mount point readable and writable by all:
sudo chmod 1777 /mnt/Data

* Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever.

5. Navigate to the new data mount point:
cd /mnt/Data

* Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever.

6. Find out the UUID# for your SSD:
sudo blkid

Mine was: UUID=03602d45-0f4c-497b-b6fe-924bcdaa5983
* Make sure you choose the correct drive OR the system may not boot.

7. Open your fstab file and make an entry to auto-mount the data partition on boot:
gksu gedit /etc/fstab

* If not using the "gedit" text editor, substitute "gedit" for kate, leaf, etc.

8. In gedit, add either of the two examples below (substitute your UUID# for the ones listed here):

For an Ext4 formatted partition (Linux), add these two lines to end of fstab file:
# Mount data partition under /mnt/Data (Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever - do not add this comment).
UUID=03602d45-0f4c-497b-b6fe-924bcdaa5983 /mnt/Data ext4 defaults 0 2

For an NTFS formatted partition (Windows), add these two lines to end of fstab file:
# Mount data partition under /mnt/Data (Change the name of the SSD from "Data" to whatever - do not add this comment).
UUID=747D4C9C1EFAD1F2 /mnt/Data ntfs-3g defaults,windows_names,locale=en_US.utf8 0 0

9. Save the file and close it.

10. Then run the following command to mount the SSD so that it will be automatically mounted on future boots:
sudo mount -a

Reboot.
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by lazarus » Mon Aug 13, 2018 9:56 pm

Joe's advice is good... but will mount the SSD as a separate device. I'd hazard a guess and say it's how most people would mount a 2nd HDD.

But you may want to add the extra file space to an already existing part of the directory structure; it's possible to mount it in such a way that you never even have to think about where it is, it's accessed automatically.

For example, you can mount it as your /home partition, in which case any reference to /home & it's sub-dirs will reference the 2nd SSD. Which would free up disk space on the 1st SSD for the OS. This is probably the next most popular way to mount a 2nd permanent storage device & there are tutorials on this board on how to do such.

Me, I work with large data files and the SW I use looks for these files in /home/documents, which makes it the biggest directory on my system in terms of disk space required. So... I have a HDD mounted as /home/documents and that is ALL that is stored there.

Just to confuse the issue, it's even possible to mount the SSD as a separate device as Joe suggested (/mnt/Data), create some directories on it such as /mnt/Data/Documents or /mnt/Data/Videos and create links between these directories and the same dirs in /home so that the file system physically stores the files in /mnt/Data but the SW that looks/copies to the /home/<dirs> still finds the files as usual! One of the many things I love about Linux! :D

So... it's probably worth giving some serious consideration over whether you want to free up any space on the existing SSD and/or where you want the new space added,
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Mon Aug 13, 2018 11:23 pm

Joe and Andy...this is quite a meal! Seriously, I'm so green at this.When I embarked on adding the 2nd drive, I was really just foreseeing the need for more space than what was currently on the original hard drive on my Toshiba C655. One day I'll really get the hang of Linux and I'll be spending all my time on this system. I'm dual boot on both of my desktops (Win7 and Linux Mint Cinnamon 18.3). That was to try to learn Linux before I trashed the Win7. The new language and how things get done is challenging.

So, I've got some soul searching to do and I need to lay out of plan of use. You've both given me some good stuff. One question: do I need to rearrange the boot priority and load Cinnamon 18.3 on the SSD? The SSD is right out of the box and I installed it in the caddy just today...no formatting. Just the computer recognizes it because the green running light is on. But that's when I learned that I didn't know how to integrate with my existing Linux Mint system.

I really appreciate the time you've taken to try to help. This Forum is really terrific in the way help is offered. When I was doing Win7, all I ever heard was how nasty and condescending Linux help was if I switched. Nothing could be further from the truth. This is a great place for help and I hope one day I can return the favor!
Thanks!
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by lazarus » Tue Aug 14, 2018 12:39 am

If you load Linux, go into GParted and partition the SSD as NTFS it should be accessible from both Linux & Win7 as an extra drive. I believe it'll automount on a reboot under the /media dir in Linux, much like a USB... although ideally you'd edit /etc/fstab to specifically mount it where you want. (/mnt/Data in Joe's example.)

Even if it doesn't, Joe has covered how to manually mount it.


As far as your 'puta is concerned, you shouldn't need to change anything unless you want to take advantage of the speed of the SSD for faster boots, etc.

If you go that route you'd be better off moving Win et al over. Basically back up your existing HDD and then reinstall Win7 then Linux on the SSD to boot off that instead.

In theory you could boot using a Clonezilla liveCD/USB, clone the entirety of the existing HDD and restore that image to the SSD. Then change the boot priorities in BIOS and reformat the old HDD for storage. After making sure that it will boot from the SSD successfully - in both OS's - first, of course!

(I say in theory, as I haven't done that myself and don't know for sure. I can see possible pitfalls, esp if you have UEFI instead of Legacy BIOS.)
Last edited by lazarus on Tue Aug 14, 2018 2:29 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Tue Aug 14, 2018 1:07 am

'Puta' (s) are working fine. Thanks for the reminder about the SSD speed. That's a big consideration with the notebook I've been talking about. It's the slowpoke but now that I've installed the SSD, I'm just trying to arrange the HDD & the SSD so they work together. Also how to best format the SSD. I've got a boot thumb drive I used to install Linux on the Notebook back in June so I guess I could use it the same for the SSD to get the Cinnamon 18.3 loaded onto it?

I'll go over these responses from the forum more carefully tomorrow. It's getting late here and at 79yrs, my thinking is slow at this time.
Thanks!
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by AZgl1500 » Tue Aug 14, 2018 1:21 am

you may want to consider having the OS on that SSD, so that you get the best benefit from it.

it will speed up boot time, and operating speed immensely.

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Tue Aug 14, 2018 11:45 am

Thanks, I'll do that. I should've asked before loading up all the programs I've loaded. :( I'll get back to this post once I've accomplished something.
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by Joe2Shoe » Tue Aug 14, 2018 7:00 pm

I'd definitely put the OS on the new SSD.
You can make links on the Data drive (/mnt/Data or whatever) for Documents, Music, Videos, Downloads, etc., which will link to those in the File Manager that now exist, but i did not include those instructions. Pesonally, I don't care for that extra ?#@(, because it doesn't save me any time looking for data. If you need them, let me know.
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Tue Aug 14, 2018 11:12 pm

Thanks Joe2Shoe. Believe me at my experience level with Linux, I can use all of the step-by-step (A-B-C) help and suggestions you care to offer me.
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Sat Aug 18, 2018 3:25 pm

Joe2Foot...I've been trying to absorb as much of the info in the url(manual) you included in your 1st Post. In it I read (I think) that I shouldn't use the GParted Program using a disk that's already loaded with an O/S. My mind has been going in all different directions with that caution. I did download the GParted but I have not tried to use it because of what I thought you were saying.

The issue is that I've got Cinnamon 18.3 and no other O/S already on my Toshiba Notebook. But I extracted the Optical DVD and installed the 500mb SSD. Toshiba recognizes it. But Linux does not see it. Like you suggested, I want to be the Primary because of its' speed and memory capacity. Joe, I don't know how to get from Point A to Point B. Meaning achieving the above. I don't want to screw up what is working nicely for me at this point in my understanding of Linux.
I don't have a clue as to how to create and mount that SSD drive...I thought when I physically installed it into the notebook...that was the 'mount'. Any further details to me would sure help!

The tutorial is absolutely great for my learning. I'm reading that manual every day. I just can't take it all in fast enough but I can certainly thank you for pointing me to it.

Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Mon Aug 20, 2018 12:27 pm

I'm answering some of my own questions by reading further in the Tutorial mentioned above. I'm guessing at some of the next steps because they're not specifically addressed in the Tutorial link in the earlier comments of my post. Sorry to be so cautious (fearful)!

I did learn how to get Linux to 'see' the SSD drive. It's up on the screen of my Notebook now. When I click on Device - Create Partition Table, I'm given the warning and then I'm asked about the new partition table type...msdos? That's the default. Then I'll need to partition? And since this ultimately will be the Primary Partition (meaning, I'll want to move what is currently on the HDD which includes the Cinnamon 18.3 Operating System), I'm not knowing the exact next steps.

Can you help?
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by AndyMH » Mon Aug 20, 2018 3:22 pm

Partition table type MSDOS is okay, it's the partition TABLE, not the partition(s) where you will hold your data. So YES.

Then create your partition(s), as stated previously, if just for linux then format as ext4, if sharing with win then NTFS.

Suggest if you are going to install mint on the SSD (it's the right choice) the best way ahead is to clone the mint installation on your HDD, or if you haven't done much with it, then do a complete reinstall.

For a complete re-install just replace the HDD with the SDD and start again. BUT, suggest you choose 'something else' on installation and create separate partitions for root (/) and /home and maybe another for swap.

To clone your existing HDD you will need something like clonezilla or redo (just two alternatives of many), there are others on the forum who can guide you through this. Recently done this myself (swapping 240G SSD for 500G), used redo, all worked fine but wouldn't boot, had to download boot-repair to fix it.

Similar setup to yours, main drive is a 500G SSD with a 1TB HDD sat in a caddy in the ultrabay of my laptop. HDD is used for backup and is mounted as /media/ultrabay.

On previous laptop also had separate HDD but used for data and shared with win (dual boot), it was mounted as /home/andy/data. Basically you can mount your extra drive wherever you want.

Nearly all, if not all of what you need to do can be done without dropping into terminal.

Confused? Keep asking questions, there are a lot of people here to help...
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Mon Aug 20, 2018 11:18 pm

AndyMH, thanks!

Just when I think I know what to do, I find out I don't. Right now on my Notebook, on the SSD drive all I can get is the partition table saying 'Unallocated...465.76GB.

I tried to shutdown/restart inserting my Cinnamon Mint Boot (maybe that's the wrong thing to do) on the thumb drive...that's how I installed the program after I got rid of Win7. No change at all. Is there a difference between having a thumb drive with the Cinnamon 18.3 O/S on it and another thumb drive that boots the notebook (or any other computer)? I know that's got to sound dumb but when you said to "Clone the Mint Installation", I didn't know how to do it. And by trying to use the Bootable thumb drive I'm likely doing the wrong thing. Anyway I know that didn't work. So could you tell me what to do to Clone the Mint Installation?

No sense of moving forward when I simply don't know what I'm doing. I need to get a partition table before I can move ahead with making the SSD my main disk.
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by AndyMH » Tue Aug 21, 2018 3:08 am

What you want to end up with is something like this (what my SSD looks like):
Screenshot from 2018-08-21 07-53-51.png
A 50G partition for root (/), a 16G partition for swap (cos I've got 16G RAM) and all the rest allocated to /home. There is a couple of G left unallocated cos it seems to be 'good practice' to do this. Why do this - if anything trashes the file system it will be limited to / or /home. / is where linux lives with all your progs, /home is where all your data lives. When you set up a backup regime you can backup / infrequently and backup /home frequently. If you upgrade to say mint 20.0 in the future, it's easier to keep all your data.

Now, at the moment you have the HDD mounted in the laptop and the SSD sat in a caddy in the bay where the DVD drive originally was. Ideally you want to swap them round with the SSD in the laptop and the HDD in the caddy. Why - cos the caddy is potentially 'hot-swappable'. Is this something you are happy to do?

When that's sorted I'll guide you through a fresh install of mint on your SSD so it ends up looking like mine. Please confirm that you are happy to do a fresh install and any data you have on the laptop that you want to keep is safely backed up somewhere else.
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by catweazel » Tue Aug 21, 2018 3:20 am

AndyMH wrote:
Tue Aug 21, 2018 3:08 am
Ideally you want to swap them round with the SSD in the laptop and the HDD in the caddy. Why - cos the caddy is potentially 'hot-swappable'. Is this something you are happy to do?
This is absolutely not necessary if the caddy fits nicely and reasonably tightly into the former DVD slot. In fact the suggestion requires the OP to open and mess with the innards of an otherwise working machine. This should be avoided.
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by AndyMH » Tue Aug 21, 2018 5:34 am

I did say 'ideally' and with the current setup the ssd will probably mount as sdb with the hdd as sda. And, you may want to swap out the caddy for a DVD writer, it's what I do when I want a DVD drive.
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by catweazel » Tue Aug 21, 2018 5:59 am

AndyMH wrote:
Tue Aug 21, 2018 5:34 am
I did say 'ideally' and with the current setup the ssd will probably mount as sdb with the hdd as sda. And, you may want to swap out the caddy for a DVD writer, it's what I do when I want a DVD drive.
My point is that it isn't ideal.

Cheers.
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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by whazzupdoc » Tue Aug 21, 2018 12:06 pm

Thanks for the lively discussion! It really does help to get the insight of others!

Responding...(this is sounding even dumb to me), I tried to download (open?) the BackUp Tool that is offered thru the Cinnamon O/S. I had cleaned up and checked a 16gb thumb drive I thought I'd use for backups. The BackUp Tool doesn't offer the option to backup to a thumb drive. So I took the hint after trying everything I could think of...and went to bed. So I need help on getting a backup tool that'll let me backup to a thumb drive.

Next, I had purchased a caddy just for the SDD swap and it fit like a glove. I don't have any intention of re-using the optical DVD. However, it was suggested earlier in my post by Joe2Shoes that do something along the line of reinstall. It's not that I'm opposed or favor the move. I just need to know how to do it...literally point by point and then what to do if it doesn't work. I can see I should've also looked into replacing the HDD of the Toshiba with an internal SDD as well prior to replacing the optical dvd.

It would also be great if you could comment on the steps to take to 1) take a screen shot; 2) copy it and then 3) put it into this chat (forum). I know very well how to do this in Win7 and how to move stuff from one place to another but I haven't even yet opened gmail in Linux.

Well, if I can get more feedback on these issues (and any other that you guys/gals may think of) I really appreciate it. In the meantime I'll continue to read and try to get more knowledge about Linux. Much appreciated!!!
Doc

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Re: Adding a 2nd internal SSD

Post by AndyMH » Tue Aug 21, 2018 4:01 pm

To get a screen shot, easy, just press the prtsc key, mint will then ask if you want to save, defaults to /home/you/pictures. If you just want the current window then Alt+PrtSc. Save the file then when replying/composing on the forum click on the Attachments tab and add files.
Screenshot from 2018-08-21 20-52-57.png
Click on 'Place inline' if you want it within the text.
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