Installation question [SOLVED]

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GraemeJ
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Installation question [SOLVED]

Post by GraemeJ »

Hi people

New boy on the Linux block here and I need a little advice.

1: I run a laptop with a 320 GB disk which is nearing full capacity. I am waiting on the delivery of a 1 TB replacement, which should be here in a couple of days.

2: I have finally decided to take the plunge into Linux (it's only taken me too many years to actually do this).

3: To this end, I downloaded Mint Cinnamon to a USB stick and used it to boot my computer in Linux mode, just to have a play around with the new OS and see how it works.

4: I was impressed enough to take it further. It was slow, running off the USB, so I changed out the HDD in my laptop for an SSD I had lying around and installed Mint from the USB.

5: This has worked well and I am looking forward to installing Mint on the new disk (when it arrives) as a dual boot system - there are some programs on Windows which I really need and can't duplicate on Linux (yet).

6: While playing around with the SSD, I added some things which I will need. This is the basis of the problem that, I think, exists.

7: I note that, on the SSD, the option to install Linux (to the laptop disk) is now missing - although it exists on the original USB.

8: I can partition the new disk and know how to clone the Windows 10 OS to one of them, but how do I clone the SSD to a second partition? Is this possible, or will I have to install Mint from the USB and then re-configure it, as I already have configured the SSD?

9: I don't know enough (hardly anything, to be honest, something I will have to work on) about the Linux CLI so, if this is involved, I really need a newb step by step method.

TIA

Graeme
Last edited by GraemeJ on Thu Sep 27, 2018 4:46 am, edited 1 time in total.
rickNS
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Re: Installation question

Post by rickNS »

#7, the option to install is missing because it is already installed, at least I gather that from what you said in #4

#8, " how do I clone the SSD to a second partition? Is this possible,"

I think that is going to depend on if you made any partitions on the SSD. Did you ?
The cloning software I've seen, and used normally will clone disk to disk (which you won't want) or partition to partition. I have my doubts if you can clone disk to partition, even if there is the physical room. If you made partitions on the SSD I think it's no problem, if you let the installer use the whole disk probably not possible.

But hey there are smarter people here than I. Lets see what they say.
Also if it is a rather fresh install you don't have much to loose with reinstalling anyway.
Mint 19.0 mate on 2 identical Thinkpad T420's
GraemeJ
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Re: Installation question

Post by GraemeJ »

I had a feeling the reason the option was missing was simply because I had already installed it on the SSD.

The SSD was not partitioned - I saw no need for that, as I was merely using it it experiment with Linux (it's not that big, only 128 GB). I was hoping that there would be a way to clone it to a partition on the 1TB disk.

You're right, of course, in that it wouldn't be too much work to duplicate the changes I made a second time and that's probably what I will have to do.
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Re: Installation question

Post by AscLinux »

Simple command cp -a will "clone" it to any partition big enough. It can be a different filesystem, no problem. After copy you need to configure the bootloader and need to correct entries in the fstab, UUID will be different.
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JerryF
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Re: Installation question

Post by JerryF »

Welcome Graeme,

I have an answer to question 8. I just tested.

Yes, it is possible to clone the SSD's installed Mint to your other disk. You can do that using Gparted, which is a partitioning program that comes installed on your live Mint USB stick that you created. You would boot Mint from your USB stick, then issue the Copy command to copy the SSD partition that you want and then issue a Paste command to paste it onto an unallocated space (greater that 128 GB) to your new 1 TB hard drive.
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GraemeJ
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Re: Installation question

Post by GraemeJ »

Thanks guys - some ideas which have pointed me in the right direction.

I have another question though. How should I format the partition on the 1TB disk that is going to be used for Mint? I am assuming FAT32, but not absolutely certain that is right.

New disk should be here on Monday (post office willing) so will try all this stuff out then
ajgringo619
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Re: Installation question

Post by ajgringo619 »

I would use NTFS; Linux has no problems with this. FAT32 has a 4-GB file size limit.
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GraemeJ
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Re: Installation question

Post by GraemeJ »

Thanks - NTSF it will be :) .
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JerryF
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Re: Installation question

Post by JerryF »

GraemeJ wrote:
Wed Sep 19, 2018 7:44 pm
Thanks guys - some ideas which have pointed me in the right direction.

I have another question though. How should I format the partition on the 1TB disk that is going to be used for Mint?
...
Your 1 TB disk will probably come as one, NTFS partition. You said that you'll be copy/cloning Windows and want to do the same for Mint.

If you're going to be doing that, I personally would delete the partition on the 1 TB and leave it unallocated. Then copy/clone your Windows first. Check to see that it boots and runs properly.

Then copy/clone your Mint from the SSD to unallocated space. You then will probably want to resize that partition to make it larger for your Mint OS and files.
I am assuming FAT32, but not absolutely certain that is right.
For Mint OS, the EXT4 file system is best.
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ajgringo619
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Re: Installation question

Post by ajgringo619 »

Doh! I read that completely wrong. I thought the drive was going to be shared with his Windows setup. :oops:
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GraemeJ
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Re: Installation question

Post by GraemeJ »

Just to make things absolutely clear.

It is my intention to have a dual boot system on my 1 TB disk. I am proposing to make two partitions, 600 GB for Windows 10 (I have some very large programs there, with a ton of data, which I either can't or don't want to use with Linux at this stage of the learning process) and 400 GB for Mint (which is really just me experimenting with a new OS).

I'm a complete newb when it comes to Linux/Unix (yes, I have Android tablets, but they hide the actual engines that drive the things - they're a bit like driving a car without knowing how or why the engine and clutch actually work) so I really do need some guidance on the best way to do some very basic stuff. I'm reasonably proficient with windows (and I came from CP/M and DOS) but Linux is a whole new ballgame for me and it's going to take a while to get into it.
ajgringo619
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Re: Installation question

Post by ajgringo619 »

That should work fine.
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vansloneker
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Re: Installation question

Post by vansloneker »

JerryF wrote:
Wed Sep 19, 2018 8:11 pm
GraemeJ wrote:
Wed Sep 19, 2018 7:44 pm
Thanks guys - some ideas which have pointed me in the right direction.

I have another question though. How should I format the partition on the 1TB disk that is going to be used for Mint?
...
Your 1 TB disk will probably come as one, NTFS partition. You said that you'll be copy/cloning Windows and want to do the same for Mint.

If you're going to be doing that, I personally would delete the partition on the 1 TB and leave it unallocated. Then copy/clone your Windows first. Check to see that it boots and runs properly.

Then copy/clone your Mint from the SSD to unallocated space. You then will probably want to resize that partition to make it larger for your Mint OS and files.
I am assuming FAT32, but not absolutely certain that is right.
For Mint OS, the EXT4 file system is best.
If he clones disk-to-disk there is no need to first delete partitions on the target. The target will be an exact copy of the source, with space after 320GB unpartitioned. [When cloning disk-to-disk be 100% sure to select the correct source and target!]

After Windows is cloned to the new 1TB disk I would make suitable partitions in the unallocated space. If Graeme wants the full 128GB of his SSD he should make a 128GB partition. Since it is a recent installation I assume he has installed Mint 19 and has no need for a swap partition. The remaining space can be used for e.g. a NTFS partition that can be accessed both from Windows and from Linux.

Two important things not to forget:
-after cloning Mint from the other disk /etc/fstab needs to be edited for booting the correct disk/partition
-to be able to boot Mint Grub needs to be installed on the new disk
And if the new disk is a SSD some steps are recommended to optimize Mint it for SSD: https://sites.google.com/site/easylinuxtipsproject/ssd
Unless stated otherwise Mint 18.3-64 XFCE
GraemeJ
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Re: Installation question

Post by GraemeJ »

Thanks to all for the advice - much appreciated. I'll be doing nothing until the new disk arrives ;) - then I'll give it a go and see how it works out.

One thing that was way above my level of knowledge was this;

"-after cloning Mint from the other disk /etc/fstab needs to be edited for booting the correct disk/partition
-to be able to boot Mint Grub needs to be installed on the new disk"


I am way behind on the CLI for Linux, although I do understand this is something that I will have to address.

The new disk is not SSD, I think I'd have to remortgage the house for a TB of SSD!!
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vansloneker
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Re: Installation question

Post by vansloneker »

To begin with the 2nd, I don't know how to install Grub from scratch. I hope and suppose more experienced users will jump in.

Editing FSTAB sounds mysterious and complicated, but this really isn't hard to do. Once you have copied Mint to your new disk, you have to boot from USB. Then open filemanager (the drawer icon bottom left in the 'taskbar'). On the left is a list of partitions. There will be one named '128GB volume' or any other size you made your Linux partition. Click on it, and in the right part of the file manager go to the folder /etc

When in /etc in the menu bar click on "file", then "open as root". In the newly opened window, locate the file named 'fstab' (no extension) and open it. It will look similar to this

Code: Select all

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=8839a69b-93e0-47cc-98aa-e66d4754140e /               ext4    noatime,errors=remount-ro 0       1
Possible, there is an extra line

Code: Select all

# swap was on /dev/sda2 during installation
UUID=b08680b1-e485-4e55-b108-cd92c417eec4 none            swap    sw              0       0
but I suppose it's not and both situations are okay. However if there is, and you have not yet done so, you need to create a swap partition. Return to the forum for help on that.

You need to change the UUID in the line that follows on
"# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation"
in this example
"UUID=8839a69b-93e0-47cc-98aa-e66d4754140e / ext4 noatime,errors=remount-ro 0 1¨.

To find the correct UUID open a terminal (dos box, command prompt) by clicking the black square icon with ">_" in it. In the terminal window enter

Code: Select all

blkid
and a list of all partitions with their UUIDs is generated. In that list you need to find the partition your Mint is on. Where in Windows partitions are expressed as C:\, D:\ etc. Linux uses the expression /dev/sda1, /dev/sda2, /dev/sdb1 etc. sda stand for the 1st disk, sda1 for the first partition on the first disk. Consequently, sdb stand for the 2nd disk, sdb1 for the first partition on the 2nd disk, and so on.
I expect the Windows partitions to be listed first, and look like
"/dev/sda1: LABEL="Windows10ProEN" UUID="1ECC9CC6CC9C9A1B" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="cb9c79f6-01".
It could very well be your Windows has system partitions created and Windows itself is on sda2, or even sda3.

The Linux partition will look like this
"/dev/sda3: UUID="8839a69b-93e0-47cc-98aa-e66d4754140e" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="b09f195d-01"
where again it could be sda2, or sda4 or whatever. What's important is

Code: Select all

TYPE="ext4"
as this will show you it's an ext4 partition and likely has Linux Mint on it. Now copy the UUID part of the first line with TYPE="ext4" in this example

Code: Select all

8839a69b-93e0-47cc-98aa-e66d4754140e
and past it in the fstab document replacing the existing UUID. (You can select it with your mouse in the terminal window and copy)

If there is the extra line for swap in fstab, you also have to change the UUID for that line with the UUID for that partition after you created it as mentioned earlier.

Finally save the file.
Once Grub is installed you will be able to select to boot from Windows or Linux Mint when you start the computer.
Unless stated otherwise Mint 18.3-64 XFCE
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Re: Installation question

Post by catweazel »

GraemeJ wrote:
Thu Sep 20, 2018 7:50 pm
"-after cloning Mint from the other disk /etc/fstab needs to be edited for booting the correct disk/partition
-to be able to boot Mint Grub needs to be installed on the new disk"
You may not have to do anything at all because the clone partition will have the same UUID as the cloned partition, and it's likely that the partition will retain its linux device identifier, e.g. sda. With that said, we don't know anything about your hardware. If you can boot from the live USB and post the output of this terminal command then I can advise you further:

Code: Select all

inxi -FxzfaC
Enclose the results between [ⅽode] and [/ⅽode] code markers by selecting </> from the mini toolbar above the textbox where you type your reply. Note the upper case and lower case letters in the command.
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GraemeJ
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Re: Installation question

Post by GraemeJ »

Thanks guys.

Lot's of stuff to bone up on - I can see a steep learning curve coming up.

Once the disk arrives, I'll let you know how I get on.
GraemeJ
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Re: Installation question

Post by GraemeJ »

Thanks to all of you for your advice, I have finally managed to install the new (larger) disk, cloned the existing Windows 10 to it and installed Mint as a dual boot system. Took me two tries - the first one went horribly wrong, to the point where I had re-format the new disk, as I couldn't see the partitions. Also, it's taken a ton of time, because I have had to do this via the USB ports.

Still, here we are and it's thanks to everyone.

Now, I need to spend a few days looking around and experimenting with the new OS. No doubt, I will be back with some questions later.
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Re: Installation question

Post by JerryF »

That's great!
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vansloneker
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Re: Installation question

Post by vansloneker »

Congratulations and enjoy your new setup!
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