What are your top tips for a Newbie?

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richlion2
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by richlion2 » Tue Sep 06, 2016 11:16 am

Hello,

I just stopped by to really say "hello" to everyone as a little bit of a guru (not in everything though). I've been on various Linux distros for over 10 years, I had Mandriva, Gentoo, Sabayon, for the past 2 years Kubuntu and now I jumped onto Mint. Overall - a very good experience, although I think Mint could improve some bits of the graphics interface and programs like the Software Installer, I find the system incredibly fast and responsive. And it looks rock solid, we done guys 8)

As for the main topic about hints? Well, I just met a Spaniard who was trying Linux Mint as he is into programming and using PHP/MySql, etc. He said he loves it and is planning to get rid of Windows (7 by the way). From this perspective my hints:

1) Do not jump the gun. Try and not to use your main computer for experimenting. If you wipe your Windows installation and run into problems on Linux you may be dissapointed. Get and older used computer or buy/steel/borrow a spare hard drive. Yes, the Mint installer brilliantly let me split my Kubuntu installation into 2 partitions for a new Mint installation. However, make sure you protect your existing system from being wiped out. Learn first and then get rid of Windows. It is possible, I have 2 PC's and 4 laptops at home, none of them have Windows.

2) Install the system and learn how updates work. The process is so simple everyone should be able to do it, but get familiar with it. The concept is almost as close to what Windows does, but there may be some small hurdles. Understand the difference between just software updates and kernel updates. What does it mean that you will have a new image and what is it.

3) Learn to backup and restore your system!
What to use, for example you can use copy/paste onto an external USB drive, but learn what the command "rsync" does. It's the most convenient way of backing up your system. Learn that a .tar file is, what commands like "tar", "bzip2" do. For example to backup and copy your Firefox profile (everything including your passwords) you can do:
# tar cvf firefox.tar .mozilla
Here .mozilla is sort of a hidden file.
Copy the file firefox.tar to your other machine and run:
# tar xvf firefox.tar
Open Firefox now and see that all your settings are copied/restored.

Do the same thing with all your Thunderbird profiles:
Back it up:
# tar cvf thunderbird.tar .thunderbird

Restore it:
# tar xvf thunderbird.tar

4) If you have a Windows 10 computer you need to learn what UEFI is, how to disable it. You can do a search and find instructions how to disable it before you boot from a USB Linux stick.

5) You don't have to learn VIM or EMACS, those are hard code UNIX editors, although Vim seems to have a more user-friendly counterpart I never tried it. VI as I call it is best used in core non-graphical environments on servers for example. Learn it if you have to, but I know professional programmers who hate Vi or VIM and never used it. I've been on UNIX boxes since 1986 and there was nothing else at that time. There are things VI can do Notepad or Kate cannot. The full power if VIM comes with "regular expressions" for string editing.

6) Go to Youtube, there are pletny of people showing off their skills. I used Youtube to learn about MS-SQL administration and there are some fantastic videos. Some even on how to program using the Shell.

7) Learn the difference between a copy of a file and a link. Something like MS shortcuts. This check on the "vi" program reveals that actually it is linked to other commands, which means it's the same binary inder different calls and can perform different things:

Code: Select all

phoenix:[ritdev]/bin> ls -l vi
-r-xr-xr-x    5 bin      bin          362686 10 Mar 2012  vi
phoenix:[ritdev]/bin> ls -lisa vi
70037  356 -r-xr-xr-x    5 bin      bin          362686 10 Mar 2012  vi
phoenix:[ritdev]/bin> ls -lisa | grep 70037
70037  356 -r-xr-xr-x    5 bin      bin          362686 10 Mar 2012  edit
70037  356 -r-xr-xr-x    5 bin      bin          362686 10 Mar 2012  ex
70037  356 -r-xr-xr-x    5 bin      bin          362686 10 Mar 2012  vedit
70037  356 -r-xr-xr-x    5 bin      bin          362686 10 Mar 2012  vi
70037  356 -r-xr-xr-x    5 bin      bin          362686 10 Mar 2012  view

8) (this is supposed to be eight) If your Linux partition becomes corrupt learn how to fix it. Windows used to have "chkdsk". Linux alternative is fsck:
http://linux.die.net/man/8/fsck
http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2012/08/fsc ... d-examples
Corruption can happen especially when you unplug your USB drive without unmounting it. Or your laptop shuts down because it overheated just then you were running a system update.

9) Learn how to use a live DVD to fix your system that is already installed.

Hope you find this helpful...

Regards,
Richard

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by Zedwardson » Sun Sep 11, 2016 1:58 pm

1. Google, and these forums are your friends
2. Figure out what you use the computer for. Start migrating tasks to Linux as your skills improve. Depending on what you use your computer for, you might find out one day you use everything in Linux, and can walk away.
3. You may very well goof something up. This happens to almost everyone.
4. Linux Mint is one of the best, if not the best places to start Linux. Easy to use, and yet powerful enough that many will never have to leave.
5. Do not be afraid of the terminal.

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sfrusciante
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by sfrusciante » Thu Sep 15, 2016 8:13 am

RUN, YOU FOOLS

jokes apart, in my fairly long experience with Mint I've been through many problems. So don't expect everything to go smooth. Just... beware.
I got a crazy number of people to disappoint. -me

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Doruletz
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by Doruletz » Fri Sep 16, 2016 12:31 pm

Your DVD arrives????
I hope you didn't pay any money for that DVD... Lots of scammers out there selling Linux DVDs...
Linux is 100% FREE, as in you pay $0 for it or any software / apps you might ever want or need.
All you gotta do is download the .ISO file and burn to a DVD or install to a Live USB.
Download link:
https://www.linuxmint.com/release.php?id=27
I recommend using the 64bit MATE version, especially when coming from Windows

Google is your friend, there are extensive tutorials on all subjects mentioned in your question...
But I guess I can help you too...
1) Installation.
Once the installer starts, DO NOT simply install (first option in the list), choose last option "SOMETHING ELSE"
Create 3 separate partitions, all PRIMARY partitions, as follows:
an ext4 primary partition, mounted as "/" (ROOT), at least 15GB in size, can be up to 32GB
a "SWAP SPACE" primary partition, at least 2GB in size, I usually make it 4GB
another ext4 primary partition, mounted as "/home" for the remainder available space on your hard drive.
2) - Linux automatically installs all drivers for all your hardware, so all your available Internet Connections should be up and running after installation. Very rarely some oddball Wi-Fi card needs a manual driver installation, and even more rarely one such installation might be needed for the wired (Ethernet) card driver.
NO ANTIVIRUS is needed for Linux, as it cannot be infected, unless you allow it to install and run corrupted apps from unreliable website sources and APT repositories.
3) - As far as problem solving, use Google or this Forum for any questions, problems, etc. Linux support is the best, there are always answers out there, all you gotta do is look for them.
deanom wrote:Hi
I'm thinking of trying Mint for the first time, and have no experience of using any Linux distros. What are your top tips for me BEFORE my DVD arrives?
Possible topics:
Installation
Connecting to the Internet
Problem Solving
Please note that technical instructions will need to be pretty basic.
Thanks

Deano
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England
What do I think about Window$??? Just take a look at my AVATAR...

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Reinstalling Linux Mint Cinnamon

Post by Jake999 » Sun Sep 18, 2016 10:40 am

Sorry for the dumb question. I am a very new user of Mint. It works pretty well, but over a couple of months, various functions have become impaired. The easiest thing to do would be to start over by reinstalling Mint, which I have on a thumb drive (which I can boot from). However, I want to install it on my hard drive and delete the old Mint. Please tell me how I can do this. I have backed up all my files and do not need to save any documents. Thanks!

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Doruletz
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Re: Reinstalling Linux Mint Cinnamon

Post by Doruletz » Sun Sep 18, 2016 4:24 pm

@Jake999:
Once you're done savings you personal data files to external storage, use DBAN (Darik's Boot and Nuke) to wipe off all the data from your Hard Drive.
I use Acronis True Image Home ($50), so I cannot give you a step by step for DBAN, which I used just once or twice. The principle is the same: perform a bit by bit deep delete, to destroy all data from your Hard Drive.
Once that's done, read my previous post for a proper install of Linux Mint.
Or just read this...
1) Installation.
Once the installer starts, DO NOT simply install (first option in the list), choose last option "SOMETHING ELSE"
Create 3 separate partitions, all PRIMARY partitions, as follows:
an ext4 primary partition, mounted as "/" (ROOT), at least 15GB in size, can be up to 32GB
a "SWAP SPACE" primary partition, at least 2GB in size, I usually make it 4GB
another ext4 primary partition, mounted as "/home" for the remainder available space on your hard drive.
2) - Linux automatically installs all drivers for all your hardware, so all your available Internet Connections should be up and running after installation. Very rarely some oddball Wi-Fi card needs a manual driver installation, and even more rarely one such installation might be needed for the wired (Ethernet) card driver.
NO ANTIVIRUS is needed for Linux, as it cannot be infected, unless you allow it to install and run corrupted apps from unreliable website sources and APT repositories.
YOU MUST install the Processor Microcode (Intel or AMD) and the Graphics Driver (nVidia or ATI/AMD)
Good luck!
Jake999 wrote:Sorry for the dumb question. I am a very new user of Mint. It works pretty well, but over a couple of months, various functions have become impaired. The easiest thing to do would be to start over by reinstalling Mint, which I have on a thumb drive (which I can boot from). However, I want to install it on my hard drive and delete the old Mint. Please tell me how I can do this. I have backed up all my files and do not need to save any documents. Thanks!
What do I think about Window$??? Just take a look at my AVATAR...

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by Cwashpimp » Sat Sep 24, 2016 6:17 pm

Be patient I have and it will be worth it! I haven't been back since before windows 7 came out the last windows I used was do 64 bit professional which I still run in a virtual box just for emergencies lol. But 99.9% things u can do in windows you can do in Linux easier and fAster

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by misdirection » Sun Sep 25, 2016 12:47 am

learn shell commands!! 8)
and as i have seen many reply== patience/take it slow. :)
what the eyes see, the ears hear, the mind believes

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Re: Reinstalling Linux Mint Cinnamon

Post by misdirection » Sun Sep 25, 2016 1:46 am

Jake999 wrote:Sorry for the dumb question. I am a very new user of Mint. It works pretty well, but over a couple of months, various functions have become impaired. The easiest thing to do would be to start over by reinstalling Mint, which I have on a thumb drive (which I can boot from). However, I want to install it on my hard drive and delete the old Mint. Please tell me how I can do this. I have backed up all my files and do not need to save any documents. Thanks!
are you going for a dual boot multi partition with windows or just a simple linux mint install on the entire drive?
what the eyes see, the ears hear, the mind believes


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jimbobs
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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by jimbobs » Tue Sep 27, 2016 10:38 pm

Dell Inspiron 1525 Core 2 Duo T5850 4GB Linux Mint 18.3 Sylvia Cinnamon 3.4.6

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Re: Reinstalling Linux Mint Cinnamon

Post by MajorMuff » Wed Sep 28, 2016 2:38 am

Doruletz wrote:[...] use DBAN (Darik's Boot and Nuke) to wipe off all the data from your Hard Drive. [...]
Do NOT use DBAN if you have an SSD...
If it screams it isn't food yet.

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by Goz » Tue Oct 25, 2016 8:02 pm

astridfeline wrote:
Yep, I had to get a new hard drive since Windows 10 wouldn't let me get into the UEFI to change the boot sequence. :twisted:

I installed Linux Mint 18 and was up & running in less than an hour. I love it already.
Windows is not happy unless it does something that causes at least four hours of aggravation,sometimes more,way more!
Think of Windows 10 as Hotel California for computers.

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by Root13 » Wed Nov 02, 2016 6:38 am

Thanks for the tips, I see, I've got a lot of stuff to learn

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by jpenguin » Sun Nov 13, 2016 12:08 am

Enable SSH & set a root password (sudo su - && passwd)

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Doruletz
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Re: Reinstalling Linux Mint Cinnamon

Post by Doruletz » Sat Nov 19, 2016 2:17 am

MajorMuff wrote:
Doruletz wrote:[...] use DBAN (Darik's Boot and Nuke) to wipe off all the data from your Hard Drive. [...]
Do NOT use DBAN if you have an SSD...
That is just a big misconception...
Maybe it was true at the very beginning of the SSD drives, but certainly not for a good 5-6 years, even more.
I do a deep delete on all my SSD drives (and I have 4 of them in this PC), and been doing that for years now...
Every 7-8 months to a year, I decide to install a newer version of Linux Mint and wipe all my drives clean with Acronis (using the DoD / US Military specs 3 pass algorithm)
Today's SSD drives have hundreds of millions, if not even billions of write over cycles in them, in fact they are more reliable and long lasting than the classic spindle and needle HDD Hard Drives, no moving parts, so they simply last longer...
As I said before, I use Acronis True Image Home (basically same thing as DBAN, only with an easier and nicer looking GUI)
What do I think about Window$??? Just take a look at my AVATAR...

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Re: Reinstalling Linux Mint Cinnamon

Post by killer de bug » Sat Nov 19, 2016 8:25 am

Doruletz wrote:Today's SSD drives have hundreds of millions, if not even billions of write over cycles in them
This is wrong in 2 ways.
The maximum number of write cycles before wear out starts is 3000 for the new generation. It was 5000 for the previous generation. This is linked with the physics behind it. A new generation means a reduction of the transistor size. But the use voltage is not reduced as drastically as the dimensions. Therefore the electrical stress during usage is increased. This leads to a lower number of write cycles.

Additionally, SSD drives age when they are not used in write or read situation. Meaning that if you just let it connected in your computer, without using it, it will still age due to the current going through it.

Therefore, new SSDs are not more reliable than old ones. And they don't have billions of write cycles. Only 3000 before it starts degrading.


Now, you need to understand that 3000 cycles on a 120GB SSD is estimated to be more than 15 years of normal usage. Most people don't write more than 10GB a day. But it had 30 years of lifetime with the previous generation. You can easily understand that we will face a wall quickly if it continues like this.
The good point is that by reducing the dimensions, you can put more transistors on the same area and therefore you increase the SDD capacity. This is turn increases the lifetime as you can write to more different places. So in a sense, new generation SSDs live longer because they have a higher capacity.

To be fully correct, we should discuss bad sectors and bad chips which impact SSD reliability. But this is way beyond today's discussion.

Doruletz wrote:in fact they are more reliable long lasting than the classic spindle and needle HDD Hard Drives, no moving parts, so they simply last longer...
This is a strong misconception. They don't last longer than spinning drives. Their failure mechanism is different. It was also observed that SSD drives fail in a much more critical way than HDD. You can't generally recover the data from a failed SSD.
HDD are slower but their reliability is higher than SSD. This stands if you don't let them fall of course. We speak about normal usage.
If it ain't broke, fix it until it is.

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by bordecabana » Mon Nov 28, 2016 4:40 am

Yes, all advice given so far is good, but after many years of using Linux distros (now Mint 17.3) I would say above all install your "home" folder on a separate partition. It's not hard to do; read how in the forums and then when the OS crashes - yes, even Linux does this! - you can reinstall without too much pain. Good luck.

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by papakanush » Sun Dec 11, 2016 10:53 am

From fellow newbie,

In searching of this and other sources of help on the internet, a lot of great advise will come in the form of suggested command lines to copy and paste into terminal. I got to know the shortcut to terminal pretty fast (alt-ctrl-t). One of the first things I found was that to paste a command that I had copied into terminal, "ctrl-v" did not work. You have to use ctrl-shift-v.

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Re: What are your top tips for a Newbie?

Post by shawnhcorey » Sun Dec 11, 2016 11:27 am

Top tip: Create a separate partition for the /home directory. That way, if you ever have to reinstall the OS, your data files will be preserved. Just remember not to format it when reinstalling the OS.

2nd tip: When doing anything to the OS, back up your data files before you start.
Don't stop where the ink does.

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