Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

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DraganTheMighty
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Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

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*Harmless Boot Bugs:
01. Initramfs unpacking failed: Decoding failed
02. ACPI BIOS Error (bug): Could not resolve symbol [\_SB.PCI0.SAT0.PRT3._GTF.DSSP], AE_NOT_FOUND (20190703/psargs-330)
ACPI Error: Aborting method \_SB.PCI0.SAT0.PRT3._GTF due to previous error (AE_NOT_FOUND) (20190703/psparse-529)

*BIG BUG WITH Multimedia Codecs (Mint-meta-codecs)!!!!
The first software you should install if you didn't during Mint installation is Multimedia Codecs (Mint-meta-codecs). If you don't do it and you install other software then it will be really hard to install it later.
Details: The conflict is between libavcodec58 and libavcodec-extra58. libavcodec58 is part of the default install of Linux Mint. libavcodec-extra58 which supports more multimedia codecs is part of Multimedia Codecs. libavcodec58 and libavcodec-extra58 cannot coexist on a
system. If you start installing applications and later you want to switch from the one to the other you cannot do it easily. Only synaptic can do it but with much blood...The uninstallation [of anyone of the two in order to install the other] will warn you about depended packages that have to be also uninstalled and it will be many! If you are already in this situation then write down the packages that will be uninstalled and reinstall them later. Some of these packages are from the ones that are preinstalled on the system so an uninstall and reinstall which is actually an upgrade if a new version has been released may break system's stability. Multimedia Codecs when installed on a "virgin" system know how to handle this conflict as the depended packages on libavcodec are known.

*"Delete" and "Move to trash" ARE NOT THE SAME THING! IT'S NOT AS IN WINDOWS! You can change this on Preferences-Behavior-Context Menu option of the file manager. It does not apply to the desktop surface. You cannot remove "Delete" from the desktop. The option "Delete" it's something you meet often applications on Linux. In some applications you can change this setting, but not in all. Get used to it so that you won't accidentally lose your files.

*Ctrl+Alt+Backspace automatically closes everything and logs you out. It’s useful in case of a frozen system.

*When you connect any usb disk "Move to trash" automatically creates a hidden trash folder so your files are not really deleted. Before disconnecting go to your system trash and delete them.

*If you mess with settings or your screen resolution is too low, some windows might not fit in the screen. Press the ALT key and grab any part of a window with the mouse and move it.

*If you have added any other language than English to enable it for the keyboard go to Keyboard-Layout uncheck the option “Use system defaults” add your language to the layout and set the “Change layout” option.

*The progress bar of the Archive Manager gets stuck, but the application it's working fine.

*Fonts viewer may freeze or close the first time you open it. Wait a little, close it and reopen it.

*If you want to copy-paste all the files of a search simply drag and drop. Unfortunately drag and drop will not work with non-english filenames. In this case you can download and install Pcmanfm file manager. On "Tools" click "Find files". Pcmanfm is similar to Thunar file manager. If you want to use it as the default file manager set it so on "Preferred Applications". Pcmanfm it's also usefull to easily check on the properties of a file-folder the "size on disk".

*Let's say you download a web page called AAA in it's complete form. As in windows it will be created AAA.html file and AAA_files folder. Windows treats the pair as one file when you copy-move-delete. Linux Mint 20 does not do this. You have to copy-move-delete AAA_files folder on your own.

*You only need to enable the firewall when you connect to the web through public networks with many strangers log in or if you suspect that your neighbor it's a hacker that can break your wifi password.

*To enable hardware acceleration in the default video player Celluloid on Preferences-Miscellaneous-Extra MPV Options type "hwdec=auto-safe"

*If you don't like the default audio player Rhythmbox suggested alternatives are Audacious and Clementine.

*When you download installers, .deb files, or .Appimage files or archives of portable apps or windows apps to use through Wine before running them check for viruses here:
https://www.virustotal.com/gui/

*If you remember to check downloaded installers and similar stuff mentioned above (you will not need many, Software Manager has 90% of the apps most people need) and if you do not connect to public networks/wifi without your firewall enabled you don't need any antivirus.

*You don't need cleaning or defrag applications on Lnux Mint even if you use an HDD (Hard Drive Disk).

*Sometimes when you rename or extract files from compressed archives they may not appear in the folder. In this case click "Reload" on the "View" menu of file manager.
The same may happen When you execute an app-command through the terminal or save-create file through an application. Files or folders you expect to be created are not shown. Apply the "Reload" trick in this case too. In the rare case that they still do not appear log out and log in again.

*If you want to hide a file or folder just rename it with a dot in the beginning. If the is "AAA" then rename to ".AAA"

*Wallpapers are located in /usr/share/backgrounds/

*The only CD/DVD burning application that really works in all cases with many devices and it's the easiest to use is Xfburn. I'm saying these after burning-testing with four devices and many disks.

*Most file managers on android have a service called FTP or Access from PC. Enable this and on linux mint install through software manager Filezilla. The ftp address given on the file manager of android will be something like ftp://192.168.2.4:2020
On Filezilla on "Host:" you must type "192.168.2.4" and on "Port:" you must type "2020"
ftp://192.168.2.4:2020 (ftp address on android)
Host: 192.168.2.4 (on Filezella-Mint)
Port: 2020 (on Filezella-Mint)
A nice file manager that does the job and has multilingual support concerning the filenames is this:
https://play.google.com/store/apps/deta ... n_US&gl=US

*To remove applications you accidentally added to the "Open With" menu when you right click a file edit the file: /home/username/.config/mimeapps.list

*Disable the mousewheel-rollup feature
Mousewheel-rollup feature is enabled by default. When you are not aware of this you may roll up the active window and think that the application was suddenly closed-crashed. It's better to disable this if you can't get used to it:
Menu button - Settings – Window Manager Tweaks - Accessibility – Disable “Use mouse wheel on title bar to roll up the window”
or
Menu button - Settings - Settings Editor - xfwm4 - mousewheel_rollup

*Make Firefox cleanse itself automatically upon quitting
Improve your privacy: you can configure Firefox to cleanse itself automatically when you close it.

Item Cookies and Site Data:
Change the "Accept cookies (...)" setting to:
Keep until: I close Firefox

Preferences - Privacy & Security
Item History: change the setting to:
Firefox will: Use custom settings for history
Now tick the following setting:
Clear history when Firefox closes
Then, click the button Settings and tick everything.

*Save on a small file Firefox settings:
Help-Troubleshooting Information and check where is your Profile Directory. Now go to this directory and copy-paste where you want to save it the file prefs.js

*Accessories - USB Image Writer" works with hybrid iso files (most of the linux iso). Windows installation iso images are not hybrid!

*When you move to trash big files, over 1GB, and then you open the thrash folder and you right click inside to empty it the file manager (Thunar is the default) and maybe the hall system will become unresponsive. The same will happen with too many small files even if their total size is less than 50MB. To avoid this right chick the trash folder and click "Empty Thrash" without opening it.

*Updates should not be done automatically So that when something goes wrong, you know what caused it and you can act immediately. Except from this you don't want to interrupt an invisible automatic update by shutting down the computer. And you also don't want to be distracted by a laggy computer when you are doing something important. So you should not enable automatic updating. If you are home with no strangers on your lan-wifi and your computer is working fine do not update at all.

*Do not remove any application which was preinstalled with Linux Mint. Even if you never use it. Some of them are needed by the system and you may damage it. You may do it if you are trying to fix a problem and you have find on the web a trusty advise that this will resolve your problem. However you should remember what you uninstalled and reinstall it if removing it didn’t fix your problem or take a manual Timeshift snapshot so that you can restore your system.

*If you have problems opening and viewing correctly microsoft office files use Microsoft OneDrive:
https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/microso ... ud-storage

*Redshift it's a nice service-application included in the system, but it has no gui. I'm sure that the light in your room does not follow your clock. Here are some Redshift switches to type in terminal or to use to make a launcher for manually enabling at various levels Redshift and protect your eyes:
redshift -O 4100
redshift -O 4400
redshift -O 4700
redshift -O 5000
redshift -O 5300
redshift -O 5600
redshift -O 5900
redshift -O 6200
redshift -x (reset)

*To make WINE work and more easy to use":
01. Install it from Synaptic Package Manager. What you must choose for installation is "wine-installer".
02. Copy-Paste /usr/share/doc/wine/examples/Wine Windows Program Loader into /usr/share/applications/
03. Open file /usr/share/applications/Notepad and on line: Exec=wine notepad replace "notepad" with "wine notepad".
04. Right click on the "m" icon, I mean right click what you usually left click to get the start menu. Now click on "Properties" and on the "Appearance" tab (the first one) make sure that "Show as tree" is selected. This way each new Wine-Windows application it's installed will have its shortcuts in a different folder.

*Windows viruses
If you discover or suspect that a windows application you use through Wine it's a virus all you need to do to clean your system is to delete the hidden .wine folder in your home folder. Then run from the menu "Configure Wine" and reinstall your other windows apps.
If this virus had done any kind of damage to your files or your system this damage cannot be undone-reverted. This is really rare to happen! Till now personally I have never heard anyone saying his system was infected and the virus touched things outside the .wine folder. Only stories like "I knew a guy..." This is 2020 and many Linux users of Wine are active on forums. And actually forums are full of people going there when they have a problem so If there was even just one such case it would be popular on the web! Don't you think?

*The hidden folder ".config" in your home folder holds the configuration folders of your apps. You can make backups for fast restoring your settings when you want to do "experiments" in your settings. You can also delete a folder of an application you used in the past and you don't plan to use again.

*The default text editor Xed it's not good for opening non-english text documents. Sublime can open any kind of encoding and with the functions "Reopen with encoding" and "Save with encoding" will help you open and save text files quickly with the universal encoding UTF8 that works on all modern oses and devices. Make backups before any changes because if you accidentally save with wrong encoding you destroy your document!
If you don't want to use Sublime and you prefer something like Mousepad then you must know and try the encodings of your language in other systems. The greek encodings are:
ISO-8859-7 (GREEK ISO)
cp737 (DOS-737) (GREEK DOS)
cp869 (DOS-869) (GREEK MODERN DOS)
cp1253 (WINDOWS-1253) (GREEK WINDOWS)
MacGreek (GREEK MAC)

*What applies to .txt documents also applies to the filenames of the contents of zip files. You can try installing Xarchiver, it seems to have better support but it's not a solution for all cases-windows local encodings.
If Xarchiver does not work what remains as solution is terminal commands. Open the folder with the zip archive in terminal and give this command:
unzip -O <CHARSET> <file name>.zip
So if you have a zip file called AAA created in GREEK WINDOWS the command is:
unzip -O cp737 AAA.zip
The commands are case sensitive and if the name of the zip file has spaces, let's say the name is AAA BBB then the command is:
unzip -O cp737 'AAA BBB.zip'
If your zip file it's password protected with the password 741852963 the command that can give you the chance to see right filenames is:
unzip -O cp737 -P 741852963 'AAA BBB.zip'
This command should actually extract them also, but because of a bug it cannot! Sorry, no solution yet!

*If you install Xfce4-screensaver no matter if you have enabled or disabled its lock features then on "Light Locker" or "Xfce Power Manager - Security tab" you must "Automatically lock the session" to "Never" and disable "Lock screen when system is going to sleep" (it's the same setting as "Lock on suspen" on "Light locker") and then totally disable "Light Locker". There is a conflict-bug and the result is an unfunctional logon screen of Xfce4-screensaver where you cannot type your password and you must reset your PC. If you install Xfce4-screensaver you must use it's own locking features.

*If you don't have any display-screen problems do not touch "Desktop Settings". If you have problems try as window manager "Xfwm4 + Compton". Your next choice should be "Xfwm4" and then the "Metacity" ones. "Compiz" should be your last choice and if you try it be careful when/if you change settings on "CompizConfig Settings Manager". "Compiz" is heavy and complicated it can be the source of many problems.

*DO NOT USE "Disks" IF YOU ARE NOT FAMILIAR WITH HANDLING PARTITIONS!

*Avoid installing FLATPAK applications. They are usually big with many dependencies offering nothing special. If you are looking for an app that has not a simple version then go for it, but before check if it's available on the official developer's site any appimage or portable version of this app.

*Avoid installing applications made for the KDE environment. They are usually big with many dependencies.

*Mixing desktop environments can result in an unstable system. Mint 20 has 3 editions, Mate, Cinnamon, Xfce. Choose one and install it. Mixing different environments is risky if if you need your pc for work. In case you want KDE then initially install MINT 20 XFCE, then install kde and then remove Xfce. Still this might be proved unstable so maybe you should try another linux distro with KDE preinstalled.

*Pix is a fast and nice application to view and edit pictures, but in my case with a few pictures when I save the file the new file it's resized to the size of my desktop! TAKE CARE IF YOU USE IT!

*Systemd Journals in some cases on a random error or crash can eat your gigabytes! These logs are saved in /var/log/journal/. You can configure journald to clear archived logs after they exceed a certain size on disk or after a given amount of time. This can be done by editing the journald configuration file /etc/systemd/journald.conf. You can add a value to "SystemMaxUse=" or you can add a value to "MaxFileSec=".
SystemMaxUse=2G to remove archived journal files until the disk space they use falls below 2 Gigabyte
MaxFileSec=1month to make all journal files contain no data older than 1 month.
To make these values active you must "uncomment". "Uncomment" means to remove # from the beginning of the line.

*Timeshift settings:
Type: RSYNC
Users
Root: include all files
username: include only hidden files


*1 KB = 1 kilobyte = 1000 bytes
1KiB = 1 kibibyte = 1024 bytes

1 MB = 1 megabyte = 1000 kilobytes = 1000 x 1000 bytes = 1000000 bytes
1MiB = 1 mebibibyte = 1024 kibibytes = 1024 x 1024 bytes = 1048576 bytes

1 GB = 1 gigabyte = 1000 megabytes = 1000 x 1000 x 1000 bytes = 1000000000 bytes
1GiB = 1 gibibyte = 1024 mebibytes = 1024 x 1024 x 1024 bytes = 1073741824 bytes

Technically gibibyte is correct.


*When you format a partition with the ext4 filesystem some of the available space is reserved for the functionality of the filesystem, 1% to 5%. The total space you see for a partition on "Disk Usage Analyzer" it's the real space available leaving out the reserved space by the filessystem. If you have a partition of 100GbB and ext4 filesystem reserved 3% you'll see as available space 97GB. On "Disks" the reserved space it's just part of the used space. So on a partition of 100GB without any data "Disks" will report 97GB free and not 100GB. "GParted" when the partition is unmounted does not read the ext4 reserved space as used, but when it's mounted it reads it as used. If you see different sizes between "Disks" and "GParted" it's because "Disks" reports space using as unit GB while "GParted" used GiB.

*The lost+found folder is a system folder that must not be deleted. It's a special folder and simply recreating with a file manager is not enough. If out of ignorance or accidentally you deleted lost+found folder go to the root of your partition and recreate it with this command on a terminal:
sudo mklost+found

*Get list of files
find /home/username/ > /home/username/FilesList.txt
ls -R /home/username/ > /home/username/FilesList.txt
ls -lR /home/username/ > /home/username/FilesList.txt
ls -a -R /home/username/ > /home/username/FilesList.txt

*Size on disk
du --block-size=1 -s <directory> (bytes)
du --si -s <directory> (KB-MB-GB)
du -s <directory> (Kib)
du -h -s <directory> (Kib-MiB-GiB)

*Actual Size
du -b -s <directory> (bytes)
du -b --si -s <directory> (bytes-KB-MB-GB)

*If you have a file manager that on properties shows different size than what you get from the “du -b -s” command it’s because “du -b -s” in it’s output includes the “hidden” size of directories-folders in ext4. It’s 4kb for each folder.


*To reset-enable-disable network notifications

gsettings reset org.gnome.nm-applet disable-connected-notifications
gsettings reset org.gnome.nm-applet disable-disconnected-notifications
gsettings reset org.gnome.nm-applet disable-vpn-notifications

gsettings set org.gnome.nm-applet disable-connected-notifications false
gsettings set org.gnome.nm-applet disable-disconnected-notifications false
gsettings set org.gnome.nm-applet disable-vpn-notifications false

gsettings set org.gnome.nm-applet disable-connected-notifications true
gsettings set org.gnome.nm-applet disable-disconnected-notifications true
gsettings set org.gnome.nm-applet disable-vpn-notifications true


*Hardware INFO (The same as “System Information” on “System Report”)
inxi -F
inxi -Fxz
sudo lshw -html > hardware.html

*USB Devices (The same as on “System Information” on “System Reports”)
lsusb

*RAM check
free
free -h
free -m
free -tm
top
top -o %MEM

*Internal IP (inet)
ifconfig

*Boot time analysis
systemd-analyze time
systemd-analyze blame
systemd-analyze critical-chain


*Clean thumbnails cache
(the same as deleting the contents of /home/username/.cache/thumbnails/):
rm -rfv ~/.cache/thumbnails
If you delete them manually and not using the above command then right chick the trash folder and click "Empty Thrash" without opening it. If you open it new thumbs are created the moment you open it and if you right click to empty from inside it will take much more time and the system will be unresponsive and all these for nothing as new thumbs have been created.
If you have installed any extra picture viewer it may have its own thumb database that you need to delete. If you use Xnviewmp then this file is "Thumb.db" located in /home/username/.config/xnviewmp/
If you edit images or if in general on your pc you copy-paste pictures that you later delete then this something you must do regularly. More images you copy and then delete more often you must do it. For 10000 images you should delete these files once in a month.

*Clean apt packages (Software installers) cache. The same as deleting the contents of /var/cache/apt/archives/:
sudo apt-get clean
Some people advice to clean this folder for saving space. On a PC with slow internet connection KEEPING these files reduce 90% the download time of future reinstalls of what is at the time installed. And on offline PC if you delete these files you cannot reinstall your apps. Check the size of /var/cache/apt/archives/ and decide on your own if this space is so important to you. For the average user it's usually less than 1GB.

*If an app does not run, gets stuck or crashes you can try deleting its cache folder. Cache folders are in:
/home/username/.cache/

*Log files are located in /var/log/. In case of space problems it's safe to delete the compressed ones, it's the ones with extension ".gz".
Last edited by DraganTheMighty on Fri Feb 12, 2021 10:01 pm, edited 11 times in total.
BeyondLies_MintForum
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by BeyondLies_MintForum »

That is useful but it would be more useful were it nicely formatted and, hence, more accessible to the reader.
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DraganTheMighty
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by DraganTheMighty »

BeyondLies_MintForum wrote:
Mon Feb 01, 2021 9:01 am
That is useful but it would be more useful were it nicely formatted and, hence, more accessible to the reader.
I wanted to write something straight like a dictionary. Descriptions and introductions would made it much longer and less memorable, but maybe you are right. I can't tell myself if the idea it's really working.
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by BeyondLies_MintForum »

Formatting is not a matter of descriptions and introductions. It is a matter of this sort of thing and
  • this sort of thing
and this, and (though admittedly I cannot find a way to do that on this forum) of the indentation of the first line of paragraphs.
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antikythera
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by antikythera »

Another one for your boot time analysis

systemd-analyze critical-chain
It shows the amount of time per service in order of trigger and puts in red the time hogs
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DraganTheMighty
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by DraganTheMighty »

antikythera wrote:
Tue Feb 02, 2021 7:10 pm
Another one for your boot time analysis

systemd-analyze critical-chain
It shows the amount of time per service in order of trigger and puts in red the time hogs
Thanks, I just added this.

Μήπως είσαι Έλληνας; Ρωτάω λόγω ονόματος.
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by antikythera »

Not Greek, just an old Geek who likes the mechanism :wink:
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by DraganTheMighty »

antikythera wrote:
Tue Feb 02, 2021 7:38 pm
Not Greek, just an old Geek who likes the mechanism :wink:
ok
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by AnonymousFighter »

Thanks to this I installed mint for people and they can use it without asking me things all the time!

Καλή δουλειά!
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Re: Ulyana X Tips and Tricks (MINT 20 XFCE)

Post by DraganTheMighty »

AnonymousFighter wrote:
Tue Feb 23, 2021 3:55 am
Thanks to this I installed mint for people and they can use it without asking me things all the time!

Καλή δουλειά!
Ευχαριστώ.
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